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. Basrah Journal of Veterinary research publishes in Arabic or English Original and distinguished paper ,short communications, Case reports and reviews in the field of veterinary sciences. The journal is published two times a year.
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1-THE INFLUENCE ON COMMUNITY-HEALTH AND FOODHYGIENE VIA ISOLATED SALMOMELLA FROM RAW-FOODS AND MORE-RECENT ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERNS, TAIF, KSA

Sherifa Mostafa M. Sabra

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

This work aimed to confirm "The influence Salmonella on community-health
(CH) and food-hygiene (FH) in raw-foods (RFs) and More-recent (MR) antibiotic
sensitivity patterns to Salmonella. In Taif, (KSA), the results was (35.0, 25.0, 17.5,
10.0, 7.5 and 5.0%) for Salmonella types (Non typhi group D, Para typhi group B,
Para typhi group A, Para typhi group C, Salmonella Spp and Enteritidis),
respectively. The effect of antibiotics were (CAX, CFT, C, CP, T/S and AM) as (98.8,
97.7, 87.3, 85.3, 65.7 and 48.5%) respectively. The scores were (100, 89.5, 84.0, 83.3,
76.5 and 66.7%) for Salmonella (Spp., Non typhi group D, Para typhi group B,
Enteritidis, Paratyphi group A and Paratyphi group C), respectively. The excellent
MR antibiotics were (CAX, CFT, C, CP and T/S), the effect ratios were given 100%.
The good MR antibiotics were (C, CP, CAX, T/S, CFT and AM), the effect ratios
were given (75-100%). The approved MR antibiotics were (Am, T/S, C and CP), the
effect ratios were given (50-75%). The not approved MR antibiotics were (AM, T/S
and AM), the effect ratios were given (under 50%). That concluded must take the
hygienic precautions and healthy measures such as non-use of antibiotics in animal
and bird rations, monitoring of (slaughter-houses, grocery, stores, fast food shops and
their employees), making "Rapid Treatment System" for infected individuals is
recommended. The "Protective Medicine Unit" and "Municipals Unit" belong to
MOH must be immediately follow the food bacterial contamination sources for
healthy eradication that to protect the CH and FH

2-STUDY OF BIOFLOC PRODUCTION FROM FISH BREEDING SYSTEM AND USING AS SUPPLEMENT IN RUMINANT DIET

Asad Pormohammad; Tahereh Mohammadabadi; Morteza Chaji; Khalil Mirzadeh; Jasem G. Marammazi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 9-20

The aim of this work was to produce biofloc from the fish breeding system
and study of its effect on in vitro ruminal digestibility and gas production in the
ruminants. In the first phase of the experiment, two hundred common carp fishes
(1gr) in two tanks with capacity 250 liters’ water were used for producing biofloc. In
the second stage, the effect of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% of produced biofloc with ration
70 to 30 concentrate to forage on in vitro gas production and digestibility was
determined. The data were analyzed in a completely randomized design (5
treatments and 4 replicates). The results showed that there was no significant
difference in potential and rate of gas production and dry matter digestibility
between treatments. The highest amount of truly digested organic matter, cell wall
degradability, and NDF digestibility was related to the treatment containing 2%
compared with the other treatments (108.4, 67.8, and 32.5, respectively). The10

microbial biomass efficiency, microbial biomass and PF of treatments containing
biofloc were more than control treatment (P < 0.05). On the base of this trial,
treatments containing biofloc especially the high levels of biofloc had a more
positive effect on digestibility and fermentation of experimental diets, therefore
biofloc produced from the fish breeding system can be used as a useful supplement
in ruminants.

3-AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF SELENIUM ON REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN ADULT MALE RATS WITH THYROID DISTURBANCE

Muna H. AL-Saeed; Ikbal A.H.AL-Rufaei

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 21-37

This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of selenium on
reproductive efficiency of adult male rats with thyroid disturbance.
Hypothyroidism state was induced by administration of antithyroid drug propylthiouracil
(PTU) (50mg/kg.B.W.) and hyperthyroid state was induced by administration of LThyroxine(L-T4) (50μg/kg.B.W.). Selenium (Se) treated rat group was given sodium
selenite (10 μg/kg.B.W.).
Sixty adult male rats of (180-200 gm) body weight were used in this study and divided
into six main groups. Control group, PTU treated group, L-T4 treated group, Se treated
group, Se+PTU treated group and Se+L-T4 treated group. All these groups were
drenched orally by gavage tube for two months.
The obtained results revealed that hypothyroidism is accompanied by significant
(P<0.05) decrease in serum T3, T4 concentrations compared with control and another
treated groups and significant increase (P<0.05) in hyperthyroidism group a compared
with control. On the other hand, TSH concentration showed a significant (P<0.05)
increase in hypothyroidism group and significant decrease (P<0.05) in hyperthyroidism
group as compared with control and another treated group.
A significant decrease in serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone have been
shown in serum of hyper- and hypothyroidism groups.
Semen analysis showed a significant decrease (P≤0.05) of epididymal sperm
concentration, sperm motility, and viability and a significant increase (P≤0.05) of sperm22

abnormalities were recorded in PTU and L-T4 groups compared with control and another
treated group. While a significant increase (P≤ 0.05) of epididymal sperm concentration,
sperm motility and viability and a significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) of sperm abnormalities
were recorded in Se alone, Se+PTU group and Se+L-T4 group. Also, histological
examination on the testis showed that rats treated with Se, Se+PTU and Se+L-T4 had
normal architecture of seminiferous tubules with different stage of spermatogenesis.
Whereas, rats treated with L-T4 alone or with PTU exhibited vacuolation of
spermatogonia and suppression of spermatogenesis.

4-EVALUATION OF MEMBRANE INTEGRITY OF BULL FROZEN-THAWED SPERM USING WATER AND HYPO OSMOTIC SWELLING TEST

Godratollah Mohammadi; Hamed Mahdion

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 38-51

Assessment of the sperm membrane functional status appears to be a significant
marker for the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa. The hypo osmotic swelling test
(HOST) is one of the best methods to evaluate sperm membrane integrity. In the
current study, we used DW and hypo osmotic solutions of 50 and 100mOsm/l of
dextrose/NaCl, NaCl, sucrose and fructose. Based on the results, Among the
dextrose/NaCl, NaCl, sucrose, and fructose solutions and DW, Maximum numbers of
swollen of bull frozen-thawed spermatozoa were observed with DW and
dextrose/NaCl solution at 50 mOsm with average response by 61.20±8.677 and
47.90±10.181 respectively. The HOST response at 3 and 60 min for all of solutions
were positively correlated to each other and there was no significant difference
between the responses to the HOST at 3 and 60 min after incubation in all of
solutions. The significant correlation was observed between motility and
dextrose/NaCl at 50 mOsm, sucrose 50 and 100 mOsm, NaCl 50 mOsm and DW. The
high relationship was between motility and DW and dextrose/NaCl at 50 mosm. There
was no significant correlation between DW and all of hypoosmotic solutions with
staining of the spermatozoa by eosin/nigrosin. In conclusion, the water test can be
efficiently used for the evaluation of the functional integrity of the plasma membrane
of bull frozen-thawed spermatozoa. The hypoosmular solution of dextrose/NaCl at 50
mOsm is a good medium to evaluate bull frozen spermatozoa. The used of HOST and
motility are better tests to evaluate bull frozen thawed sperm than eosin-nigrosin. The
short HOST procedure (3 min) is suitable method for evaluating of membrane
integrity of bull frozen/thawed spermatozoa.

5-EVALUATION OF INTRAYOLK SAC INOCULATION OF INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VACCINE ON IMMUNE RESPONSES IN NEWLY HATCHED BROILER CHICKS

Harith A. Najem

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 52-62

A total of 60 one-day old Ross broiler chicks were used in this study. The birds
were divided into four groups. The first group A was vaccinated against IBD with a Cevac
IBD L vaccine at one-day old by intra-yolk sac method (lYS) with a dose of 0.5ml using a
(1ml) syringe, whereas the second group B was vaccinated against IBD with the same
vaccine at 14 days of age by drinking water method (DW). The third group C and fourth
group D were considered as a positive and negative control respectively . On day 35, the
birds were weight and killed to collect blood samples and lymphoid organs were
removed and weight to study the effects of (lYS) rout on body weight , lymphoid organ
weights and the humeral immune response to IBD vaccine which measured by ELISA
test. The results showed significant differences at (P≤0.05) in body weight of group A, in
addition significant (p<0.05) increase in the all lymphoid organs weight , Bursa of
fabricius (BF) was 1.643 a ±0.066 in group comparison with other groups which had been
recorded 1.102 b ±0.022, 0.850 c ±0.067 in group B and C respectively. Group B indicated
that was a significant decrease at (p<0.05) in the weight of of spleen which was 1.102 b
± 0.022 in comparison to control groups. With regard to serological test, bird from group
A recorded higher Ab titer 24038 a± 685 compared to those of other groups , and this
increment was statically significant (p<0.05), however both group A and B revealed a53

significant differences( p <0.05) from the control groups. Generally the results indicated
that intra-yolk sac method was highly effective rout of IBD vaccine administration

6-OVERDOSEOF TUSSIRUM INDUCED HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE LIVER AND KIDNEY IN MALE DOMASTIC RABBITS

Zenab M. Abd Al Rahmman; Yasmeen J. Mohammed; Abdal J. Rasmy; Majdy F. Majeed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 63-73

In this study, the histopathological changes due to overdose usage of Tussirum
drug(0.75 and 3 ml/Kg)in liver and kidney were assessed in rabbite with light
microscopes. Six male rabbites(1 ± 0.5 Kg ) were included and divided into three
groups.Normal saline (3ml/Kg) wasgiven orally as placebo in the control groupI (N= 2).
Group II and III(N= 4 for each) was received Tussirum orallyat a single dose of (0.75 and
3ml/kg/day) for 30 days respectively. the results were recorded that both doses of
Tossirum were induced that blood vessel congestion, aggregation of Kuppfer
cells,inflamintion infiltrations and Sinusoidal dilatation in the liver parenchyma in
addition to the cytoplasmic vacuolation, degeneration, pyknotic nuclei in the hepatocytes
and. On the other hand, renal damage was observed in the kidneys of treated rabbits,
necrosis of glomular, degeneration of nucli and degeneration in the lining epithelial cells
of renal, also noted that glomular shrinkage, dilated of reanal tubules and hyperplasia of
tubles walls,as well as to necrosis of renal tubules endothelium, closing of renal tubules
lumen, isulation of renal tubules endothelium and density in some nucli chromatic
Finally, the investigators concluded that Tossirum toxicity induced hepatocellular and
renal damage

7-MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF ADRENAL GLAND IN LOCAL DOMESTIC PIGEONS ( Columba livia domestica) IN BASRAH PROVINCE

ALAA H. SADOON

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 74-85

The present study was designated to illustrate the morphological ,
histological and histochemical features of adrenal gland of local domestic pigeons
(coulumba livia domestica) in Basrah province . Ten adrenal glands used in the study
collected from Karrmat Ali Village, Iraq . Immediately after collection the adrenal
glands were subjected for morphological histological and histochemical study. The
study revealed that the pigeon have paired small glands located in the abdominal
cavity at the anterior pole of the kidneys . The gland was elongated in shape and
showed creamy or grayish in color. Histologically , the glands was unsheathed with
thin fibro – elastic connective tissue capsule containing many blood vessels . The
cortical tissues were arranged into two zones; peripheral (sub capsular) and inner
(central). The cells of sub capsular are arranged in curved cord , each cord had
polyhedral acidophilic cells. On the other hand, the histological examination of the
cortex of adrenal glands contains autonomic ganglia associated with glandular capsule
,contains nerve cells and fibers. The inner cortical cells showed straight and curved
cords in longitudinal sections, each composed of two types of cells acidophilc cells
and chromaffin cells .The Histochemical study revealed presence lipids droplets in
the gland , in addition to elastic fibers in the capsules and among the cells of glands .

8-MULTIPLEX PCR DETECTION OF ERYTHROMYCIN RESISTANCE GENES IN COAGULASE NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI ISOLATED FROM COWS IN BASRAH, IRAQ

Mohammed H. Khudor; Basil A. Abbas; Jean M. Mezban

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 86-102

This study was conducted to identify the erythromycin resistance genes in the
coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and its molecular characterization after
isolating the bacteria from the samples of domestic animals and their products during the
period from September 2016 to March 2017 from different areas in Basra city. 200
samples were collected from animals including: 40 samples from meat, 50 samples from
raw milk, 30 samples from treated milk, 40 samples from cow's nasal swabs and 40
samples from cow's teat swabs. Results showed that from 200 collected samples only 108
were CoNS distributed in 22(15.1%), 18(12.4%),10(6.8%), 26(17.9%),32(22%), from
meat, raw milk, treated milk, nasal swabs and teat swabs respectively. Samples were
planted on the selecting mannitol salt medium to isolate Staphylococcus spp. which had
the ability to grow on the mentioned medium. When the coagulation test was performed,
some isolates were not able to produce the coagulation enzyme, and the results showed
that 108 isolates were coagulase negative (54%). Twenty-two isolates of minced meat
55%, 18 isolates of cow's milk (36%), 10 isolates of milk sold (33%), 26 isolates of the
nose of the animal (65%) and 32 isolates of animal teat swabs (80%). Twenty-five
isolates of these negative staphylococci were identified using VITEK 2 kit. The result
showed that 10(40%) isolates identified as coagulase negative Staphylococcus and fall in87
four species including 4 (40%) Staphylococcus lentus, 4 (40%) Staphylococcus
gallinarum, 1 (10%) Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and 1 (10%) Staphylococcus
chromogen. When the ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes were investigated by PCR the
result showed that they contain the genes in a percentage 5%, 20%, 20% and 5%
respectively. By using the multiplex PCR molecular weight technique (ermA, ermC) and
(msrA, ermC), the ratio of both genes was 15% and 5% respectively.

9-PREGABALIN EFFECTS ON CELLULAR AND HUMORAL COMPONENTS OF BLOOD OF MICE (Mus musculus)

Wissam Sajid Hashim Al-Uboody

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 103-111

The oral use of pregabalin was evaluated in this study to reveal its effects on
some hematological and biochemical parameters of laboratory mice. The animals of
this study were divided into three groups (twelve mice each). The control group was
fed on a standard ration. The first treated group (Pregabalin 1) were dosed orally with
one ml of distilled water containing Pregabalin (20 mg/ml/mice/ day). The second
treated group (Pregabalin 2) were dosed orally with one ml of distilled water
containing pregabalin (40mg/ml/mice/ day). The experiment continued for two
successive months. The results showed that the use of pregabalin caused a significant
declination in R.B.C., HGB, HCT, W.B.C., M.C.V., MCH, and MCHC of both
treated groups compared them with control group and the declination was more
significant in (pregabalin 2) group compared with (pregabalin 1) group. The RDWCV, RDW-SD, and PLT increased significantly in both treated groups as compared
with those of the control group. However, PCT, PDW and MPV were not affected by
the use of pregabalin except the MPV of (Pregabalin 2) group was significantly less
than that of (Pregabalin 1) but without a significant difference compared with that of
control. The Fe++, and GLU decreased significantly in both treated groups compared
with the control and they declined more significantly in (Pregabalin 2) compared with
(Pregabalin 1). Both the TP and Ca++ did not affected by the use of pregabalin
compared with the control group (P≤0.05)

10-DETECTION OF AFLATOXIN M1IN LOCAL CHEESE OF MOSUL CITY, IRAQ

I.A. Sultan; A.M. Shareef; I.I. Khalil; H.S. AL-Naemi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 112-122

A total number of 90 (45 soft white and 45 processed) local cheese samples
purchased from Mosul City supermarkets from March to June 2013 were analyzed for
Afla toxine (M1),AFM1 using competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
(ELISA). Results showed that 37 soft white cheese samples (82.22%) were positive to
residual AFM1 with a range between 0.000-0.470 ppb and a mean of 0.133 ppb, while
all the 45 processed cheese samples (100%) were contaminated with AFM1 at a range
between 0.040-0.810 ppb and a mean of 0.213 ppb the difference between mean was
significant (p<0.05) than that of soft white cheese samples. Four soft white cheese
samples (8.88%) were failing to reach the desired level of the European Communities
and Codex, compared with 9 samples of processed cheese (20%) failed to reach the
desired level. The public health hazarded of AFM1 in milk and dairy products was
discussed

11-EFFECT OF CINNAMON ZEYLANICUM BARK WATER EXTRACT ON MALE DIABETIC ALBINO RATS FERTILITY

Ahlam J.H.AL-Khamas

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 123-135

The effects of Cinnamon zeylanicum (CZ) bark extracts on productivity of male
diabetic albino rats testosterone stages were studied. The experimentation was carried out
on 24 male albino rats allocated into 4 equivalent groups of 6 animals each. One group
was served as a normal control, whereas rats of the groups (2) were given Alloxan (120
mg.B.W / day for 3 days) by intraperitoneal injection for induction of diabetes was
leftward as a diabetic control, while rats of groups (3) CZ extract treated by 500 mg.kg
B.W.orally, while rats of groups (4) CZ extract treated 500 mg. BW orally,for 6 weeks
without alloxan treatment. Results showed that oral administration of CZ extracts to
diabetic rats for 6 weeks significant increased serum testosterone levels. The dose of
extracts ameliorated the degenerative lesions which found in diabetic rats testes, This
study recommend that drinking of CZ bark as a extract may be beneficial for diabetic
patients who suffer from sexual impotency as it improve fertility and lessen the high
blood glucose level in male diabetic rats.

12-TOXICOPATHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF MULTIPLE DOSES DIGOXIN IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

Saleh K. Majeed; Abbas A. Khadhair

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 136-146

The current study was conducted at the college of veterinary medicine, university of
basrah in the periods extended from 22/10/2016 to 22/1/2017. The present study is
designed to report the toxic effects of digoxin on kidney histologically and biochemically
by measuring kidney parameters urea and creatinine level in the serum. Maximum toxic
dose determined by using 2 rats dosed orally until clinical signs of toxicity became
prominent at 30mg for each rat and considered as MTD. The chronic toxicity study was
carried out on 48 adult rats divided into 4 groups. Control (G1) receive distilled water,
Low dose (G2) dosed with 1/20 MTD(1.5mg/kg) digoxin, Intermediate dose (G3) dosed
with 1/10 MTD(3mg/kg) digoxin and High dose (G4) dosed with 1/5 MTD(6mg/kg)
digoxin by oral gavage for 90 days. At the end of experiments all animals were sacrificed
and blood sample were collected for estimation of biochemical parameters of rat. Result
reveals histopathological changes presented as dilation/vaccuolation of renal tubules and
atrophy of glomeruli. There is a significant (P≤0.05) increase in serum urea and
creatinine level in high dose (G4) group when compared with other study group. We
conclude that high dose digoxin has toxic effect on renal tissue and lead to their damage.

13- STUDY THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CULTURE MEDIA ON SOME FROZEN SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF IRAQI BLACK LOCAL GOAT SPERMATOZOA

Taher A.Fahad; Khairi G. Al-Rikabi; Abdulrazak N. Khudair

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 147-154

The semen was collected from five adult Iraqi black local bucks by the
artificial vagina and using estrous induced doe the semen was diluted with egg yolk
10% extender and frozen by liquid nitrogen for three months, macroscopic and
microscopic evaluation were done after collection, dilution and thawing, three
media(TCM-199, DMEM and SOF)were used to see the their effect on activation of
spermatozoa. The results showed that TCM-199 media presented higher significance
in sperm motility, progressive motility compared with DMEM and SOF media.
There was a great decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa after activation using
these media which didn’t differ significantly among them and they were higher
significantly compared with control in normal morphology.

14- STUDY EFFECT ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD (EMF) AND MOBILE PHONE RADIATION ON SOME HEMATOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND HORMONAL PARAMETERS IN FEMALE RATS

Rashad F. Ghadhban; Azhar A. Mhaibes

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 155-164

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Electromagnetic field
(EMF) and mobile phone radiation on some hematological, biochemical and hormonal
levels. This study was achieved on 36 mature female rat, divided in to three groups
each one consist of 12 animal , first group was control groups without exposure to
any effects. Second group was exposed to electromagnetic field(50- 60 Hz) for 30
minutes daily for 45 days, third group was exposed to Mobile phone radiation for 30
minutes and the period of exposed was daily for 45 days. Blood samples were
collected from treated and control rats about 6ml divided in to two tubes one with
anticoagulation for complete blood test and other without anticoagulation for
hormonal and biochemical analysis. Results revealed that there were significant(
p≤0.05) decrease in RBC count when exposed to electromagnetic field and mobile
radiation while that there were significant( p≤0.05) increase in WBC when were
exposed to electromagnetic field. While there were significant( p≤0.05) decrease in
WBC when female rats were exposure to mobile phone radiation. There were
significant (p≤0.05) increase in cholesterol and triglyceride when exposed to
electromagnetic field and mobile phone radiation, there was significant (p≤0.05 )
decrease in FSH level in mobile phone radiation group in compared with control and156

magnetic groups. Significant (p≤0.05) decreased in LH level of mobile groups
compared with control groups.
INTRODUCTI

15- STUDY THE EFFECT OF ADDING AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CLOVE (Eugenia caryophyllus) TO DRINKING WATER IN PRODUCTIVITY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF BROILER CHICKEN

Afrah S.AL-Tabari; Zahira A.AL-Zuhairi; Mahasen Abdulrazzaq

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 165-175

This study was to investigate study the effect of adding the aqueous extract of clove
(Eugenia caryophyllus) by two different levels to drink water to improve the productive
efficiency and some physiological characteristics of the broiler.
The study was carried out on 180 chicks of Hubbard at one day old. They were
divided randomly into three groups (60 bird in each group) with three replicates for each
group (20 bird for each replicate. In this experment, the bird was given two types of
diets, the first diet was a starter that has been feeding on the 1-2٢ day age-old , whereas
the second diet was finisher that has been feeding on 2٣-4٨ day age-old.
The experimental treatments divided into three groups. In control group, birds drink free
water without any addition. In group T1, birds received 1% of aqueous extract of clove
flower in drinking water, whereas group T2 received 5% of aqueous extract of clove
flower in drinking water.
The current study showed a significant improvement (p <0.05) in the production
efficiency of birds. Its included weight of the body, weight gain, feed conversion ratio,
feed and water consumption rate, decrease in mortality rate and improvement in some
blood traits including haemoglobin, white blood cell WBC, packed cell volume PCVin
treatment groups(T1, T2) compared with control group. As well as the results showed a
significant decrease (P <0.05) in the glucose level, cholesterol, urea and creatinine in both166

of treatment groups compared with the control group that intake water free from an
aqueous extract of clove.
From this study, we concluded that adding of aqueous extract of clove flower at
different concentrations led to improved productive and physiological effects of broiler
chicken.

16- DETECTION OF BRUCELLA SPECIES IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY COWS AND GOATS RAW MILK BY PCR

Fawzia A. Abdullah; Enas Ismael Al- Jaboury

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 176-191

Brucellosis an intracellular pathogen capable of infecting animals and humans.
The aim of this study was to identify Brucella spp in apparently healthy cow and goat
raw milk samples by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. A total of 75
cow milk samples(55 direct and 20 indirect) and 50 goat milk samples were
examined by PCR. To establish a PCR protocol for diagnosis of brucellosis, DNA
was extracted from the milk samples by using a commercial kit. PCR amplification
was done for detection of Brucella DNA using BCSP31 target gene and IS711 locus.
The PCR assay showed that an amplicon of 223 bp was obtained in 28% (21/75) and
8% (4/50) samples of cow and goat tested milk using primers (B4/B5) derived from
aBCSP31gene encoding the 31-kDa Brucella abortus antigen. In another PCR, an
amplicon of 498 bp was obtained in 100% (21/21) of the brucella genus BCSP31-PCR
positive cow milk samples using Brucella abortus-specific primers derived from a
locus adjacent to the 3’-end of IS711, and also an amplicon of 731 bp was produced in
100% (8/8) of the BCSP31-PCR positive goat milk samples using Brucella
melitensis-specific primers.PCR positive results for brucella genus and brucella
abortus species were observed in all (100%) cow,s milk samples(n=11) with clinical
history of abortion.As a single PCR product, no B. abortus was detected in goat milk
samples alsoB. Melitensis was not detected in cow milk samples

17- PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY OF Escherichia coli AND Klebsiella pneumoniae FROM PATIENTS AND ANIMALS IN BASRAH PROVINCE

Bassam Y. Khudaier; Roaa A. Sabeeh; Mazin N. Mousa

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 192-208

During the period of seven months from October 2016 to May 2017, 299
samples were collected, 152(51%) human samples, of which 69 (45.4%) were from
urine and 83 (54.6%) were from children suffering from diarrhea in hospitals in AlBasra governorate. 147 (49.2%) samples were from fecal of animals, of which 82
(55.8% ) samples were from buffalo and 65(44.2%) were from cow .A total of 101
E. coli serotype O157: isolates out of 299 were suspected E. coli analyzed 52/101
(34.2%%) were from human 16 (10.5%) samples were from urine and 36 (23.7%)
samples were from stool . and 49/101(33.3%) were from animal 33(22.4%)
samples were from buffalo and 16 (10.9%) samples were from cow . On the other
hand 68(22.7%) isolates out of 299 were suspected K. pneumoniae analyzed 41/68
(27%)were from human 28/41( 18.4%) isolates were from urine samples and 13/41
(8.6%) isolates were from stool samples and 27/68 (18.4%) were from animal 16
(10.9%) samples were from buffalo and 11(7.5%) samples were from cow).All
suspected isolates were subjected to testing biochemical. It was found that 10 out of
101 were 4 isolates of animal faeces (2 buffalo and 2 cows).six isolates of 52
isolates (4 of the children's stool samples and 2 of the urine samples) 19.5% nonfermented sorbitol (NSFEC).The isolates were tested against 14 different antibiotics

18- STUDY THE EFFECT OF NIZORAL ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN MALE RABBITS

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 209-222

The present study aimed to determine the potential toxic effects of Nizoral through oral
administration on some of blood and biochemical parameters of laboratory rabbits .
Eighteen of local normal rabbits were used in the present study . The animal divided
randomly to three group ( six animal in each ) .Group one ( control ) the animal treated
normal saline .Group two the animals chronically feed by stomach tube Nizoral 20
mg/kg/BW daily for 30 days. Group three the animals chronically feed by stomach tube
Nizoral 40 mg/kg/BW daily for 30 days. The investigation included body weight gains
(BW) , some blood parameters like red blood cells count (RBC) hemoglobin
concentration(Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and total white blood cell count(WBC) .
Biochemical parameters included total serum alan in aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate
aminotransferase(AST),and hormones testosterone concentration ,and semen
characteristics .The results showed reduced in BW. R.B.C count ,Hb concentrations PCV
value were reduced gradually but not reach a significantly . Total W.B.C count
lymphocyte and monocyte appeared a significant decrease(p≤0.05) ,but neutrophils
showed a significant increase (p≤0.05).The biochemical study refers to a significant
increase (p≤0.05) in ALT,AST and a significant decrease(p≤0.05) in hormones
testosterone concentration.The testes and epididymis appeared absences of sperms .

19- THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND VITAMIN C FOR THYROID FUNCTION IN ADULT MALE RATS EXPOSED TO SODIUM FLUORIDE

Sumayah Faruq Kasim; Jassim M. A. Alkalby

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 223-233

This study was carried out to investigate the role of both calcium chloride and
Vitamin C in protection against the deterioration effect of sodium fluoride (NaF)
exposure on thyroid function .Fifty adult male rats were used, which divided
randomly into five equal groups, the first group: The animals of this group served as
control group administrated distilled water orally by gavage. Second group:
administrated NaF (5.2mg/kg.bw/day) orally by gavage. Third group: administrated
NaF (5.2mg/kg.bw/day) + Calcium Chloride (20mg/kg.bw/day) orally by gavage.
Fourth group: administrated NaF (5.2mg/kg.bw/day) + Vitamin C
(100mg/kg.bw/day) orally by gavage. Fifth group: administrated NaF
(5.2mg/kg.bw/day) + Calcium Chloride (20mg/kg.bw/day) + Vitamin C
(100mg/kg.bw/day) orally by gavag . The treatment continued for 45 days. At the
end of the experiment, animals were sacrificed under anesthesia. Blood samples
were taken and the serum was separated for the study of the thyroid hormones, and
tissue samples of the thyroid gland were taken for histological changes. The study
showed a significant elevation in thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH), and a
significant reduction in tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4) hormones concentration in NaF treated group compared with control, however a significant
improvement were recorded in above cited parameters in all treated groups.
Histopathological study revealed hyperplasia include presence of large number of
small follicles in NaF treated group whereas a significant amelioration were found in
all other treated groups which appeared semi-normal compared with control group

20- STUDY THE EFFECT OF BAY LEAF EXTRACTON THE SOMEBIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC MALE RAT INDUCED BY ALLOXAN

Adel M. Hassen Alzobidy; Jian Ibraheem k

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 234-245

The present study aimed to determine the ameliorative effect of bay leaf
extract(BLE) on some biochemical parameters of laboratory diabetic male rats
(Rattusnorvegicas) induced by Alloxan .The study consisted of thirty adult male rats
randomly divided into five equal group(six of each ). As follow :Group one the
animals treated by intra peritoneal injection (IP) of normal saline solution
(0.25ml),Group two the animal treated by oral gavage with (BLE) at dose (500 mg
/Kg/BW) daily .Group three , rats were treated I.P with 100 mg /Kg BW single dose
of alloxan(Allox).Group four .The diabetic rats were given orally by oral gavage
low dose of ( BLE)(250 mg /Kg/BW ) daily. Group five ,diabetic rats were given
by oral gavage high dose of BLE(500 mg /Kg/BW ) daily for 3 weeks.At the end
of experiments period ,rats were sacrificed ,blood were collected by cardiac puncture
to investigate biochemical parameters which included glucose ,liver enzyme
(ALT,AST and ALP ) lipid profile TG , TC ,HDL-c , LDL-c , ,Total serum protein,
Blood urea, and Creatinine concentration . Result indicated a significant increased
in Glucose,ALT, AST, ALP, TC, TG, LDL-c ,urea, and Creatinineinin diabetic animal
whereas HDL-c significantly decreased

21- STUDY THE EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND LIPID PROFILE IN ADULT MALE RATS TREATED WITH HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.

Adel M. Hassen Alzobidy .Abdul Razzak N. Khudair; Faraj H.Joni AL-Bidhani

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 246-256

The present study was aimed to determine the ameliorative effect of caffeine on
Body weight and lipid profile in male rats treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) .
Seventy Two adult male rats were used in this study . The study included two
experiments ,in each experiments 36 males were randomly assigned two six equal groups
of six animals in each group .The animals in both experiments were treated with the
same substances and doses for each group as follows .Group one (control) animals were
drenched normal saline ,Group two animals were treated (5.63 mg/kg. Bw )H2O2 daily
by oral gavage also group three , animals were treated with low dose caffeine (150 mg
/kg Bw) daily .Group four , animals were treated with high dose caffeine (250 mg /kg
Bw) daily . Group five . animals were treated (5.63 mg/kg. Bw )H2O2 dose after 1 h
animals were given low dose of caffeine (150 mg/kg Bw) .Group Six animal were
treated with H2O2 dose(5.63 mg/kg Bw) each rat after one hour was given high dose of
caffeine (250 mg /Kg Bw) . The first experiments lasted for one month and second
experiments lasted for two months . At the end of the two experiments, animals of all
group were sacrificed under chloroform anesthesia .Blood samples were collected from the heart directly by cardiac puncture and the serum was separated to measure the lipid
profile .
The result revealed a significant decreased in body weight gain in H2O2in first and
second experiments compared with control group . While a significant improvements
were recorded in body weight gain in all treated groups compared with H2O2 group but
still significantly lower compared with those of control group. A significant increase in
TC ,TG and LDL-c were recorded in H2O2 group in both experiments compared with
control group on the other hand no significant difference was recorded in HDL-c level
in H2O2group in first experiments while a significant decreased was recorded in second
experiments compared with control group . Finally a significant degrees of
improvement were observed in lipid profile in all treated group compared with H2O2 .

22- RESIDUAL DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD, CHROMIUM AND COBALT IN DAIRY PRODUCTS AND THEIR BY-PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED FROM MILK SPIKED WITH THESE METALS

Hiba S. Al-Naemi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 257-276

The research study the distribution patterns and residues behavior of Pb, Cr and Co
between dairy products [yoghurt, cheese and fatty dairy products ( kishfa, Gaymer and
cream)] and their by-products (whey and skim milk) manufactured from
experimentally polluted raw ewe̓ s, buffalo̓ s and cow̓ s milk were investigated using
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The studied metals (Pb, Cr and Co)
were concentrated in both cheese and fatty dairy products (kishfa, gaymer and cream)
as they recorded concentration factors in cheese produced from raw ewe̓ s, buffalo̓ s
and cow̓ s milk of 3.849, 3.466 and 2.452, 3.804, 2.938 and 2.342 and 2.995, 2.682
and 2.336 folds, respectively and 3.693, 3.164 and 2.339, 3.347, 2.773 and 2.242 and
2.601, 2.156 and 2.14 folds, respectively in kishfa, gaymer and cream produced from
raw ewe̓ s, buffalo̓ s and cow̓ s milk compared with metals concentrations reported in
raw milk used for preparing these products, whereas the by-products of cheese and
fatty dairy products processing (whey and skim milk, respectively) contained Pb, Cr
and Co concentrations lower than these present in raw milk as they recorded reduction
levels of 71.6, 58 and 31.7, 63.7, 39.5 and 27 and 31.4, 20 and 9.5%, respectively in
whey and 37.3, 29.9 and 12.1, 41.7, 27 and 19.3 and 21.3, 7.8 and 5.2%, respectively
in skim milk. Yoghurt processed from the raw ewe̓ s, buffalo̓ s and cow̓ s milk
contained Pb, Cr and Co metals at mean concentration levels similar to and slightly
less than those found in raw milk as the reduction levels amounted 0, 0.6 and 1, 0.1,
0.7 and 1.4 and 0.6, 0.8 and 1.9%, respectively. Generally, metals exhibited significant
differences (p˂0.05) in their distribution and residues behavior in dairy products and
their by-products and comparable to raw milk used in processing as they arranged as follows: cheese> fatty dairy products (kishfa, Gaymer and cream)> raw milk>
yoghurt> skim milk> whey, except yoghurt and raw milk which difference was not
significant (p˂0.05). Also, metals found in studying dairy products in the order of Pb >
Cr > Co, in contrast to their by-products as they arranged reversibly. Finally, metals
concentrated in cheese and kishfa produced from raw ewe̓ s milk, in addition to cheese
and gaymer produced from raw buffalo̓ s milk at levels significantly higher (p˂0.05)
than those present in cheese and cream produced from raw cow̓ s milk.

23- EXTRACTION OF POLYSACCHARIDES FROM THE LEAVES OF JEWS-MALLOW Corchorus olitorius L .AND THEIR POTENTIAL ANTICOAGULANT ACTIVITY

Mohammed Zyarah Eskander

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 277-290

Polysaccharide was extracted from the leaves of (Molokhia) Jew’s-mallow by hotwater extraction using trichloro acetic acid(TCA) to removal of protein from the
polysaccharide ,precipitation with ethanol, and obtained a polysaccharide yield from
4.2% based on wet weight source. The biochemical composition of the polysaccharide
contains total carbohydrate,sulfateandprotein77.6%, 8.6%, 0.63%, respectively.
Phytochemical tests were carried out for polysaccharide. The previous studies
indicated the presence of glycoside, phenol and tannin in polysaccharide from Jew’smallow. However, the presence of both alkaloids and saponins was not observed .The
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis of the polysaccharides consist of
carboxyls and sulfate groups.The anticoagulant activity of polysaccharide was
evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT)
assays with respect to heparin The results obtained by APTT assay, through the
increase in coagulation time, the increase in blood coagulation time with increased
polysaccharide concentration, the 100 μg/ml polysaccharide concentration had the
longest time of 210Sce and was compatible with the concentration of1000 (IU/ ml) of
heparin.However the time of PT did not have any apparent effectiveness in increasing
the time of coagulation at all concentration compared with heparin.

24- HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGE OF THE TESTIS IN ADULT MICE AFTER IRRADIATION OF LASER TREATMENT

Satar Abood Faris

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 291-302

In the current study demonstrated the role of irradiation with stimulate the cells on
division and accelerate of spermatogenesis in mice testis following low –level laser
therapy and anti-inflammatory process.
Twenty -eight healthy male and female mice .They were maintained in individual
cages with free access to water and a pellet balanced commercial diet for mice . All
animals have been weighing by using sensitive balance and the mean body of mice
(25+_5 gm) .
The stages of Q-S Switch Nd:YAG laser set-up with 632 nm 10 ns of pulse
duration and 10 Hz of frequency to get a dose or energy density were : 1-set a single
pulse on Q-Switch Nd:YAG laser using control panel with repetition rate of 10 Hz .
Mice were irradiated to testes a 670 nm with intensity 4 J/cm2 /day .for seven days
.But mice of control group without exposure any laser

25- BACTERIOLOGICAL ISOLATION AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF ENTEROBACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM GALL BLADDER OF SLAUGHTERED CATTLE

Ashwaq Raheem Nazzal

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 303-313

The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in meat-producing
animals, especially ruminants, represents a major problem for human and animal and
also could increase the patient's morbidity and mortality. The gallbladder may be a sit
of persistence and a source for fecal shedding of certain enteric food-borne pathogen
resistant to many antimicrobial agents. In the current study 80 samples (32 bile, 48
epithelium) were examined to isolate the enteric pathogen;AII samples were cultured
on primary and selective. The frequency of isolation of microorganisms was (60% )in
the epithelium and (40% ) in the bile. The major pathogen isolated were (68.57%)
Proteus spp. (21.25%)E-coli ,(7.5)Citrobacter ,(1.25) Psudomnas.
and(1.25)Klebsiella.The antibiotic resistance was determined by Kirby-bauer disc
diffusion method using 10 of routine and practical antibiotics. In antimicrobial testing
from both bile and gallbladder epithelium showed sensitivity to the following
antimicrobial :amikacin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin and
ciprofloxacin.
In conclusion , the current study provide helpful insights into the prevalence of food
source pathogens. High level of antibiotic resistance in proteus spp and Ecoli that
could transmit to humans through meat and meat products need for monitoring
system on the incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric pathogens in meat
animals in slaughterhouses.

26- HISTOMORPHOLOGY OF HAEMOLYMPH NODES OF WATER DEER (HYDROPOTES INERMIS ARGYROPUS): NOVEL STUDY

Artemeva E.A

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 315-325

The objective of the present work was to investigate the anatomical and
histological structures of haemolymph nodes in the adult water deer (Hydropotes
inermis argyropus). Methodology: the morphology of haemolymph nodes from 5
adult water deer was studied by gross inspection and by histological methods.
Results: the haemolymph nodes were determined for the first time in water deer
(Hydropotes inermis argyropus). The nodes located in the neck on the trachea,
thoracic and abdominal cavities in water deer. Dark red in color and oval- or round
shaped haemolymph nodes in water deer were observed particularly along the
abdominal aorta and caudal vena cava; as well as on the trachea along the jugular
vein, on the internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein and on the aortic arch.
These nodes had a hilus with hilar vessels, which entered the haemolymph nodes
through the trabeculae as trabecular artery. The parenchyma was organized in the
form of cortex and medulla. Lymphoid rim was located between subcapsular sinus
and cortex. The cortex was composed of a many secondary lymphoid follicles and
diffuses interfollicular lymphoid tissue, and medulla contained medullary cords and
medullary sinuses. A reticular meshwork extended throughout the haemolymph
nodes formed the structure backbone. The interstices of the reticular meshwork were
filled with free blood cells, many macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells.
Conclusion: the dark red haemolymph nodes of water deer examined were seen
along the course of large blood vessels in the neck on the trachea, thoracic and
abdominal cavities. This is first study has demonstrated the presence of haemolymph nodes in water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) and provided essential
information on their anatomical and histological structures. The data obtained in the
present study may be used for further research in this field

STAINING TECHNIQUE FOR HELMINTH PARASITES BY USE RED BEET ( BETA VULGARIS L.) EXTRACT

Mohanad . F. A.Al-Amura

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 283-292

Experimentally red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) extract had been used to stain different types of parasites Lecithochirium acutum (Trematoda), Taenia spp.Dipylidium caninum and cysticercus cyst for Taenia spp. (Cestoda), Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara canis (Nematoda) and Neoechinorhynchus iraqensis (Acanthocephala). Stained helminthes were acquired a good pigmentation with distinction their internal structure, fish's Trematoda Lecithochirium acutum appear well –defined of its internal structure, the oral and ventral sucker, cirrus sac, uterus, testes, ovary and vitallaria were appeared pink in color. The whole of mature and gravid segments of Taenia spp. were acquired the yellow to brown colour in both cirrus sac and vas deference besides differentiation of eggs in gravid segment, Scolex of Taenia spp. get brown in color.in addition segment of Dipylidiun caninum acquired yellow colour. The cysticercus cyst was taken pink in color with distinguish of its hooks, while both Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis and Neoechinorhynchus iraqensis were appear pink to red in colour

EFFECT OF PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION AGAINST INHIBIN-Α, -ΒA, AND –ΒB SUBUNITS ON SERUM GROWTH AND DIFFERENTIATION HORMONES PROFILE IN PREGNANT AND LACTATING PRIMIPAROUS WISTER RATS

Jassim M.A. AlKalby; Jabbar A.A.Al-Sa; Manhal J. A. Al-Saeedi; aidi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 79-96

Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily members are closely
associated with tissue remodelling events and reproductive processes. The present
study aimed to determine the role of immunoneutralization of endogenous inhibin-α,
βA, and βB subunits on serum growth growth and differentiation hormones profile
during pregnancy, delivery, and lactation periods in primiparous female Wister
rats.Eighty four pregnant primiparous female rats were assigned to 4 groups (21 per each). On 5 th and 10 th day of gestation, control was injected with saline (100μl, i.p.),
Ta, Tba, and Tbb groups were injected with inhibin-α, βA, and βBantiserum (1µg in 100μl of saline, i.p.), respectively. Each group was allocated to 3 equal subgroups: pregnancy, delivery, and lactation subgroups were sacrificed on day 16 of gestation, 1st day after parturition, and 11 th day of lactation, respectively. At the end of each subgroups period, females were anesthetized, dissected and blood samples were obtained for assessment of inhibin-A, -B, activin-A , -B, -AB, GH, and prolactin
levels. Serum inhibin-A concentration in Tbb group increased during pregnancy and
delivery among experimental groups. In comparison between periods, Tbb group
showed significantly higher level during pregnancy and decreased during delivery and
lactation, whereas Ta and Tba groups recorded no difference between periods.
Inhibin-B increased in control and Tba groups during pregnancy, whereas lactation
period showed higher levels in Ta, Tba, and Tbb groups compared with control. Ta,
Tba, and Tbb groups recorded no siginificant differences between pregnancy and delivery periods but they were significantly higher in lactation period.During pregnancy and delivery, Tbb group revealed higher levels of activin-A and lowest level of activin-B concentrations among groups, whereas activin-AB concentration
increased in control and Ta groups. In comparison between periods, activin-A
concentration was higher at delivery, whereas activin-B and –AB concentrations were higher at lactation. Serum GH, in Ta group, recorded higher level during the three periods among groups. In comparison between periods, the levels of GH and PRL in all groups showed higher levels at delivery followed by lactation and pregnancy.In conclusion, passive im munization against inhibin-α, βA, but not βB subunit, at 5th and 10th day of pregnancy, have ameliorating role on serum growth and differentiation hoemones profile

PATHOGENESIS OF INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS IN INFECTED BROILER CHICKENS

M.H. Mohammed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 180-188

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most common viral diseases of poultry. The objective of this study was to estimate the distribution of avian infectious bronchitis virus isolate in experimentally infected chicken. Twenty-one-day-old commercial broilers were divided randomly into two groups (fifty in the experimental and twenty in the control group). Chicks in the experimental group were inoculated intranasal with 106 ELD50/0.1 mL of the virus. The samples from different tissues were collected at day 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 postinoculation. Chickens showed mild respiratory signs and depression. Viral RNA was detected in the kidney, lung and tracheas. The most important clinical signs and virus finding appeared on day 1 pi. Data showed that the number of infected chickens and viral RNA detection from tissues was reduced with increasing antibody titer on day 20 pi. The results demonstrated that the IB virus has wide tissue distribution for respiratory, urogenital, and digestive systems.

TENUICOLLOSIS IN SLAUGHTERED SHEEP AT DUHOK ABATTOIR- KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ

Nacheervan.M.Ghaffar

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1-24

A study on the prevalence and monthly incidence of Cysticercus tenuicollis metacestodes of sheep were carried out in Duhok abattoir(north of Iraq) .The work was conducted during the period from October.2008- to September.2009 by weekly regular visits to the slaughterhouse. All slaughtered animals were apparently healthy, were of local breed, of both sexes originated from some areas with non –descriptive features. Visual inspection of the lesion and traditional procedure were followed.Age,sex and different locations of cysts were widely investigated in each species and then tabulated . Out of 4716 sheep examined, only 31(0.7%) of sheep had cysts, with absence of these cysts in both goats and cattle. However, the vesicles were only present in female sheep. The highest infection rate was found in sheep older than 2 years(1.7%),while the lowest was in sheep younger than one year(0.1%).The heaviest incidence was observed in Febrewery,2009(1.4%)and the lowest was in Jun and July(0.3%). The commonest locations of the cysts were in the mesentery (29%) followed by the uterus (16%) with few cases in other visceral organs.

MAGNESIUM SULFATE, KETOROLAC, PROPOFOL, KETAMINE, AND XYLAZINE ANESTHETIC PROTOCOL IN RABBITS

Ahmed A. AL- Mramudhi; haier A. Abid

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 70-81

The study aimed to evaluate the combination of Magnesium sulfate (Mg), ketorolac (Kr), Propofol (P), Ketamine (K), and Xylazine(X) anesthetic protocol in anesthesia and analgesia of rabbits. Twenty healthy male rabbits, weighing (1.300 0.200 kg) were used in the study. All rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups of five rabbits injected with the different protocols (G1(p10k50mg50 ), G2(p10k50kr10 ), G3(p10 k50 kr10mg50 ), and G4(p10 k50 kr10mg50x5)) of anesthesia intravenously in the marginal ear vein. The heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) were taken before giving the drugs (Time 0 (control reading)), and then after 5,10,15,20,30,45,60,and 75 minutes of giving anesthesia. The induction time, duration of anesthesia, degree of analgesia, muscle relaxation and recovery time were recorded also.
The anesthetic protocol in G3 (p10 k50 kr10mg50) is seen suitable for short operations (gives 24.2 minutes of surgical anesthesia), and the anesthetic protocol in G4 (p10 k50 kr10mg50x5) is seen suitable for long operations (gives 43.5 minutes of surgical anesthesia), and no signs of pain with the intravenously injection of propofol.

INVESTIGATION OF PHYLOGENIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL AND SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN DIFFERENT ANIMALS IN BASRAH PROVINCE

Ibrahim H. Madhloom; Rasha M. Othman

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 193-209

E.colican be assigned to one of the four main phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2
and D, which can be divided into seven and then into subgroups: A0, A1, B1, B22, B23,
D1, and D2, in addition group B1can be divided into subgroups B11 and B12, using
multiplex PCR according to the presence/absence or combinationof the three phylogeny
genetic markers chuA, yjaA and DNA fragment TspE4.C2.In the currentstudy atotal of
30E. coli isolates were obtained from clinical and subclinical samples from mastitis in
cows, sheeps and goats by standard bacteriological methods. Results found that the most
isolates of E. coli belong to the phylogeny groups A and B1. Group Aincluded (14
isolates, 46.7%) belonged to subgroup A0 about (6 isolates, 20.0%), and (8 isolates,
26.7%) to A1 subgroup. On the other hand results showed group B1 composed (14
isolates, 46.7%). Group B1 can be also classified into subgroups B11 included (8 isolates,
26.7%) and B12 about (6 isolates, 20.0%). In addition our results showed (1 isolate,
3.3%), assigned to B2 belonged to subgroup B23 and (1 isolate, 3.3%), fitted in D
belonged to subgroup D1. No isolates were found to belong to subgroups B22 and D2.
Phylogeny pedigree was done according to the data recovered previously. This study
explains that the distributions of E. coli isolates in phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and
D) varied depending on the climatic zone and environmental factors such as dietary,
climatic conditions and geographic.

SILICON POLYMER FOR CAST OF PARANASAL SINUSES OF IRAQI LOCAL GOAT (Capra hircus)

Alaa A.Sawad; Dhuha Adel Kareem

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 111-118

The present work is designed to study the anatomical features of the paranasal sinus in local goat(Capra hircus) to distinguish and describe the types of the paranasal sinuses. Five heads of local goat were collected are used in this study , Used of silicone casts and imaging in order to study the shape, position of sinuses . The study revealed that the paranasal sinuses are ventilated spaces connected to the nasal cavity. They develop as blind ending pouches between the lamina of the bones of the skull or are a series of cavities arranged one after another like pyramidal shapes consists of five sinuses. which cavities are frontal , maxillary, lacrimal, palatine, conchal sinuses with absence of sphenoid sinus . The frontal sinus lies above the eyes (above the orbits) and have two types larger lateral and smaller medial, Maxillary sinus is large and located under the cheeks, while the lacrimal sinus is very small located in the dorsal part of the lacrimal bone . The palatine sinus is located in the hard palate. There are three conchal sinuses located inside three conchae of nasal cavity. The dorsal, ventral ,middle conchal sinuses located inside dorsal ,ventral ,middle nasal concha respectively , the dorsal conchal sinus longer than ventral and middle conchal sinuses. The aim of study to identify the morphological features of the paranasal sinuses and relation between them and with other regions. in the Iraqi local goat because veterinary importance and its effect on public health.
INTRODUCTION
Goats are a popular large animal model because they can be easily obtained and bred. Over the past decades, they have been used to study immunoserology, microbiology, biological products, gene transfer and tissue-engineering repair of bony defects and for teaching and biomedical research and for surgical training.( 1, 2).
The paranasal sinuses of goat are a series of cavities arranged one after another. These cavities are frontal , maxillary, lacrimal,palatine, conchal sinuses. The Frontal sinus, Consists of spaces within the bones between the cranial cavity and the nasal cavity divided into two parts, smaller medially and larger laterally ,while the Maxillary sinus, are the largest sinus is divided by the infraorbital canal into medial and lateral parts. The lateral partion is larger and extends caudally into the lacrimal bulla; while the medial portion located medial to the infraorbital canal , is continuous with the palatine sinus ;Lacrimal sinus are relatively small and lies near the frontolacrimal junction, The Palatine sinus Communicate with the maxillary sinus through a wide maxillopalatine opening and three conchal sinuses (dorsal, middle, ventral) formed by concha of nasal cavity ( 3,5).
This sinuses are cavities lies in the interior at some bones of the skull .the walls of the sinuses are composed of compact bone and are lined by a muco- periosteum (muco-endosteum) which is continuous with the nasal cavity( 3,8).
Anatomical features of the paranasal sinuses and relation between them and with other regions in the Iraqi local goat were aimed in this study.

RETENTION OF FETAL MEMBRANES IN IRAQI BUFFALOES, CLINICAL &THERAPEUTICAL STUDY

Al-Zahid; Al-Hamedawi; T.M. And Al-Yasiri; E.A

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 167-172

This study was conducted on 74 Iraqi buffaloes suffered from retention of fetal membranes (RFM) after 8-12 hrs in Karbala province from 2010-2011, there were ranged from 3-7 years old. The affected animals were divided into four groups randomly according to the treatment regime .1st group (18 buffaloes) treated manually ,2nd group (22buffaloes) treated with oxytocin hormone 100 IU(10ml/IM) .While the 3rd group (21 buffaloes) was treated with a single dose of estrumate 750μg (3ml /IM) .The 4th group (13 buffaloes) was treated with a single dose of estradiol benzoate (15mg/IM) and all groups were treated with a single dose of oxytetracycline 20% (20ml/IM).The response for different treatment regimes were 100% ,77% ,76.19% and 76.92% for groups respectively. The manual removal treatment gives a superior significant difference (P<0.01) from other hormonal treatments and the second group recorded a better percentage of drops of fetal membranes compared with the 3rd and 4th group. The manually treated animals were superior to other group related to first postpartum estrus, the number of services per conception and the days open measurements. We concluded that the manual treatment still an important method of treatment, this fact depends on the reproductive parameters. Also we concluded that the hormonal treatment is a good method and gives appositive result reaches to 80% response.
INTRODUCTION

ANTIMICROBIAL INFLUNCES OF ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACTED FROM SOME PLANTS FORMULATIONS ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

Hazim; S. Jabar; Rana; A. Faaz

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 94-110

Antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests serve as standard assays for measuring the activity of compounds against pathogenic bacteria. In the current study, some plant-derived proprietary essential oil blends (Olea europaea , Pimpinella anisum L. , Coriandrum sativum , Matricaria chamomilla L. , Borago officinalis , Cimum basilicum L. , Cuminum cyminum , Thymus vulgaris thymol , Menta xpiperita L. , Rosmarinas officinalis comphora) were tested for their antibacterial activity against five common strains of pathogenic bacteria using disk susceptibility tests. A formulation intended for topical use (Essential Oil Formulation 1) (EOF1) inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus as evidenced by zone inhibition diameter measurements when compared to those reported for standard antibiotics. EOF 1 exhibited no activity against Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The second formulation (Essential Oil Formulation 2) (EOF2), intended for inhalation use, inhibited the growth of all five test bacteria strains with zone inhibition diameters two to three times greater than those reported for standard antibiotics. The growth of all five bacteria strains was inhibited when a cotton swab impregnated with EOF 2 was suspended above the bacterial lawn, indicating a true vapor or fume effect by this formulation.

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