Volume 8, Issue 2, Autumn 2009, Page 1-199


ACUTE TOXICITY OF THREE TYPES OF REFINERY PRODUCTS TO MOSQUITO FISH Gambusia affinis

Ala; a Abdul Hussein Salah; Majeed Shnawh sfyh

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1-9

The mosquito fish Gambusia affinis was export to different concentration (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8, 1, 2 and 4) mL/L of refinery products (kerosene, gasoline, and motor oil) under the laboratory condition. Values median lethal concentration LD50 was indicated that the fish were more sensitive to gasoline than kerosene. While least sensitivity was to motor oil. The toxicity curves indicate the gasoline was more toxicity to mosquito fish than kerosene and motor oil respectively

EFFECT OF FISH OIL ON HUMORAL IMMUNITY OF BROILER CHICKS

Ali Abd Saham AL-Mayah

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 23-34

Many clinical studies have reported that fish oil supplementation has beneficial effects supporting the idea that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil are anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. Sixty one-day old broiler chicks were used in this study to determine the effect of fish oil on humoral immunity. They were divided into 3 equal groups (A, B &C) and raised under the same conditions until the end of the study at 49 day of age. The birds were vaccinated 3 times against Newcastle disease, at the 7th day they were vaccinated with Hitchner B1 and at 21st day and 35th day with LaSota type vaccine. Group A was fed fish oil supplemented diet for 14 days before the 3rd vaccination, whereas group B was fed after vaccination. Group C was served as control. Serum samples have been collected at 49th day from all groups. Antibody titer was detected by HI test; 2-mercaptoethanol-sensitive IgM and 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant IgG were also measured. Serum total protein, albumin and globulins were also estimated. Differential white blood cell count was performed to detect the number of heterophils and lymphocytes and their ratio. The results indicated that HI antibody titer was significantly ( p < 0.05 ) increased in both group A and B. Two-mercaptoethanol-sensitive IgM and 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant IgG were also showed significant ( p< 0.05 ) increase of IgG in both groups. The present study was also revealed a significant (p< 0.05) increase of serum globulins of group A and B in comparison to that of control group. Heterophils and lymphocytes percentage of both treated groups (A and B) significantly higher than that of untreated control group. These results showed that 50 gm/kg of diet fish oil accelerates antibody production and maintain proper immune function in chickens fed after vaccination against Newcastle disease with LaSota type vaccine at 35th day of age.

ISTOPATHLOGICAL CHANGES CAUSED BY THE EXPOSURE OF SUPER BENZENE ON HAEMATOPOIETIC TISSUES (SPLEEN AND BONE MARROW) IN EXPERIMENTAL RATS ( RATTUS NORVIGICUS

Karim H.Th.Al-Derawi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 43-51

The present study was carried out to determine the effect of super benzene inhalathion and its metabolites on haemopoietic tissues(spleen and bone marrow) on experimental rats.Animals were exposed via inhalation to concentrations of (5 and 10) ppm super benzene for 2 hour/day, 5 days /week for 3 months.Histological studies revealed that spleen of the exposed animals to super benzene, were exposed to 5 ppm showed white pulp atrophy and absence of megakaryocytes in red pulp with blood vessels congestion.In 10 ppm showed increased of extramedulary haemopoiesis, acute splenitis and fibrosis as well as showed aggregation of lymphocytes in lymph node, thickness with centeral artery wall also inflammation of inflammatory cells inside centeral artery and vasodilatation in centeral artery in asplenic nodule.While the bone marrow related to the animals exposed to 5 and 10 ppm showed reduced in haemapoietic tissue which partly replaced by adipose tissue.

A RESISTANCE STUDY OF Pseudomonas aeruginosa TO HEAVY METALS

Hussein K .Abdul-Sada

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 52-60

The prefect example for microorganisms which resist heavy metals is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it has a good ability to resist and accumulate different metal ions, This article studied the resistance ability of P. aeruginosa against different concentrations of the following metals compounds :
(HgCl,MgSo4,Zn2O3,MgCO3,Na2SO4,C10H20O,EDTA,NiSO4,CuCl2 and CdCl2), and describing the role of these metals to influence the production of bacterial pigments .

INDUCTION OF ABORTION IN IRAQI GOATS USING BROMOCRIPTINE

Al-Hamedawi; I.H. and Al-Yasiri; D.J; T.M; Al-Timimi; Khammas; E. A

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 61-64

Twenty pregnant goats at gestation period ranged from 100 – 130 days were used in this study and divided in to four groups according to duration of gestation period. G (A) = 100 – 110 days, G (B) = 111 – 120 days, G (C) = 121 – 130 days. All of the goats were injected with a single dose of 2.5 mg / kg B.W. Bromocriptine I.M. The fourth group also 5 goats G (D) = 120 – 130 days were used as control & given 2 ml distal water I.M.
Results showed that 80% of G (A) aborted after 5.12 ± 1.74 days, 60% of G (B) aborted after 4.92 ± 1.15 days and 60% of G (C) aborted after 4.97 ± 1.15 days of injection. In addition all the aborted goats showed complications represented by retention of fetal membranes and subsequent uterine infection compared to controls which showed neither abortion nor complications.

PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF ACUTE TOXICITY INDUCED BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF MALATHION IN PIGEONS

A.N; Harith

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 65-77

The objective of the present study was to investigate the pathological changes of the acute toxicity of Malathion as organophosphorus insecticide in wild pigeons (Rock dove). Liver enzyme Alanine Transaminase (ALT) in the serum of treated pigeons was measured. The maximum tolerated dose of malathion was 3.525mg / kg B.W. However, when the maximum tolerated dose of the malathion was given to group A, two out of eight pigeons died within two hours after treatment .The insecticide caused clinical signs appeared within two hours before death, they included salivation, lacrimation , gasping, frequent defecation, drooping of wings, tremors, convulsion and recumbancy. Also the histopathological changes of the acute toxicity of present study included vacculation of nerve fibers in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve, meningitis associated with lymphocytic infiltration in the brain, myocardial fibrosis, aggregation of lymphocytes and hepatic septal fibrosis. Cortical fibrosis with inflammatory cells, regenerating renal cortical tubules and dilated cortical tubules were also seen. Compared to control values the exposure to insecticide caused increase of the ALT level in the serum for treated pigeons, and this increment was significant. In conclusion Malathion insecticide administered orally at maximum tolerated dose induced clinical signs of poisoning, pathological changes in different organs of pigeons and increased the ALT value.

ACUTE TOXICOLOGICAL PATHOLOGY OF COUMAPHOS (ORGANOPHOSPHATE COMPOUNDS) IN ROCK DOVE

Qiesar.A.K

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 78-86

The aim of this study was to examine the acute toxicity of organophosphorous insecticide (coumaphos) in wild pigeons (Rock dove) and measure the level of liver enzyme Alanine Transaminase (ALT)in the serum of pigeons treated orally with a single dose 3mg/kg bw. of coumaphos and study the histopathological changes of central and peripheral nervous system ,liver, kidney, heart and pancreas after 3 weeks of dosing .The results showed muscarinic, nicotinic and central nervous system effects and as well as showed a significant increasing (p≤0.‏05) in the level of ALT in the serum of treated pigeons in comparism with control group .The histopathological results included degeneration of nerve fibers in sciatic nerve,spinal cord and hepatocyte also preiportal and septal fibrosis and bile duct proliferation,the kidney showed degeneration of renal tubules and separation of renal capsule

SERO-EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TOXOPLASMOSIS IN SLAUGHTER WORKERS

Mohammed S. Thamir; Ali R. M. Al-Imara

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 87-90

A sero-epidemiological study was made of detection of toxoplasmosis between slaughter workers in Basrah abattoir city, southern Iraq.
A total of (100) blood sample was collected with different ages between (20-50) years. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was found between (45-48%).

EFFECT OF LONG-TERM ADMINISTRATION OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE (VIAGRA) ON SOME SPERM CHARACTERISTICS AND TESTIS ARCHITECTURE OF MALE RATS

Khalid G. Al-Fartosi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 91-103

Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is an oral medication used to treat male impotence by the inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 in the corpus cavernosum and subsequent facilitation of penile erection. The side effects of sildenafil citrate have been reported. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of long term administration of sildenafil citrate on some characteristics (sperm count, sperm malformations) and testis architecture of male rats. The results indicated that the oral administration of 50 mg and 100 mg of suldinafil citrate (Viagra) for 8 weeks caused a significant decreased and a significant increased in sperm count and sperm malformations respectively. The results were showed the histopathological changes in testis of male rats treated with 50 mg and 100 mg sildenafil citrate..

EFFECT OF LONG-TERM ADMINISTRATION OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE (VIAGRA) ON SOME SPERM CHARACTERISTICS AND TESTIS ARCHITECTURE OF MALE RATS

Khalid G. Al-Fartosi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 91-103

Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is an oral medication used to treat male impotence by the inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 in the corpus cavernosum and subsequent facilitation of penile erection. The side effects of sildenafil citrate have been reported. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of long term administration of sildenafil citrate on some characteristics (sperm count, sperm malformations) and testis architecture of male rats. The results indicated that the oral administration of 50 mg and 100 mg of suldinafil citrate (Viagra) for 8 weeks caused a significant decreased and a significant increased in sperm count and sperm malformations respectively. The results were showed the histopathological changes in testis of male rats treated with 50 mg and 100 mg sildenafil citrate..

EFFECT OF LONG-TERM ADMINISTRATION OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE (VIAGRA) ON SOME SPERM CHARACTERISTICS AND TESTIS ARCHITECTURE OF MALE RATS

Khalid G. Al-Fartosi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 91-103

Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is an oral medication used to treat male impotence by the inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 in the corpus cavernosum and subsequent facilitation of penile erection. The side effects of sildenafil citrate have been reported. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of long term administration of sildenafil citrate on some characteristics (sperm count, sperm malformations) and testis architecture of male rats. The results indicated that the oral administration of 50 mg and 100 mg of suldinafil citrate (Viagra) for 8 weeks caused a significant decreased and a significant increased in sperm count and sperm malformations respectively. The results were showed the histopathological changes in testis of male rats treated with 50 mg and 100 mg sildenafil citrate..

THE EFFECT OF GLUTATHIONE DEPLETOR AND INDUCERS IN THE BILIARY EXCRETION OF CADMIUM AND ZINC IN RATS.

Abdel Khailq.A.A; Hanaa.A.Abbas; May.J.Abed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 104-109

The effect of hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion and enzymes Induction on hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST’s) activity, biliary excretion of GSH cadmium, zinc was studied in rats.
The GSH depletor Methyl Iodide did not Influence hepatic GST activity but depending on the substrate used , Phenobarbital benzopyeren increased it by 50-60% , 20-30% respectively GSH depletor decreased (60%) , benzopyrene did not effect
Phenobarbital increase(90%) the transport of GSH into bile.The biliary excretion of cadmium and zinc was reduced by methyl iodide depletor (52-65%) and enhanced by Phenobarbital (99- 110)% . treatment with benzopyrene did not affect the excretion of zinc into bile ,but decreased that of cadmium, these result do not provide evidence for the role of hepatic GST but support the importance of biliary GSH excretion in the hepatobiliary transport of cadmium & zinc .
It is assumed that Phenobarbital enhance the biliary excretion of metals by increasing the transport of GSH as a chemical complexation (cadmium-glutathione, zinc-glutathion) while the benzopyrene was less effect .

THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF SOME ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES OF Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Eiman A. Saeed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 110-119

Combination therapy of antibiotics can be used against multi drug resistant bacteria. In vitro investigation of two antibiotics combinations regimens were used against multi drug resistant local isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that isolated from chronic otitis media patients to determine the usability of combination therapy for the treatment.
The first attempt of combination therapy regimen was tested for synergy between MIC of Rifampicin 4µg/ml with MICs of Tri-methoprim 50µg/ml, Cephlexin 50µg/ml, Tetracyclin 45µg/ml, Gentamicin 4µg/ml, and Erythromycin 40µg/ml, respectively in nutrient broth medium, the results yielded synergistic action in the combination therapy of Rifampicin and Erythromycin, confirmed spectrophotometrically. The second attempt of combination therapy examined against the same isolates on nutrient agar medium between MIC of Ciprofloxacin 20µg/ml and MICs of Rifampicin 4µg/ml, Gentamicin 4µg/ml, Streptomicin 4µg/ml, Tobramicin 3µg/ml respectively, the results were exhibited full synergistic bactericidal activity that took place for four combinations therapy with MIC of Ciprofloxacin in combination with the MICs of other antibiotics.

STUDY OF TRACHEAL ALLOGRAFT TRANSPLANTATION IN ADULTS DOGS

Alaa Ahmed Ibrahim

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 120-127

The present study was done to investigate the ability of tracheal allograft transplantation in adult dogs and evaluate the health condition of the outcome of the allograft transplantation respect of the healing. Tow groups of adult dogs (each group 4 dogs) were used as both donors and recipients.
A rectangle tracheal allograft was transplanted in recipient dog and fixed by suturing, gross evaluation showed that there are no signs of tracheal stenosis or any complication like difficult breathing and blood stained coughing, the animals remained in good health through out the procedure.
Histopathological examination one moth after transplantation revealed prominent cartilage enclosed by fibrosis and absence of any infiltration of inflammatory cells while histopathological finding 2 months after operation showed sub epithelial fibrosis and presence of cartilage. This will give indication that tracheal allograft can be used as tissue replacement for treatment of tracheal defects.

TUBERCULOSIS PNEUMONIA, A TYPICAL PRESENTATION OF PULMONARY TB.

Ghaed; a J. Al-Ghizawi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 128-136

This study was carried out to see the pattern of pneumonic disease in Basrah general hospital in the two groups of patients, inpatients out patients and to see the extent of tuberculosis presented as pneumonia, not as atypical case of clinical and X-ray findings in the apices of lungs.
This is prospective study for patients with typical history, signs investigation chest x-ray of pneumonia, lobar and bronchopneumonia from the period of (April 2006) to (October 2008) were included in this study, they are attending the out patient department or are admitted in the wards of the Basrah general hospital.
From a total of 374 cases of pneumonia, 26 cases of TB pneumonia diagnosed. There findings did not suggest TB to start. There age range from one to 72 years, the most common age group affected was 20-40 year for both sexes, while at age group 50-70 males affected more, bronchopneumonia was comment type of pneumonia in this group recorded in 13 patients, or bronchitis in 6 patients. ESR was less than 50 mm/hr in 12 patients so it is unreliable in 50% of cases.
This study show that pulmonary TB is increasing (5.36%) and it could present in pneumonia like picture not involving the typical sites (apices) even in those who are not diabetic or immune compromised.

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE SOLASODINE OF SOLANUM NIGRUM AGAINST BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM THE WOUNDS

Hammed Gadoh Abbas; Mohammed Abdul-Imam Almazini; Amani Abdul-Amer

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 137-147

In this study , 80 clinical samples collected from patients including wound, blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid and isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were identified . The inhibitory effects of ethyl alcohol extracts and solasodine compound of Solanum nigrum were tested on clinical isolates of the wound included: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
The ethyl alcohol extract showed inhibitory activity on all tested bacterial Spp . All the activities were compared with a tetracycline.The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the Solasodine were 8, 6, 4, 8 mg/ml respectively for S. aureus , S. epidermidis , E. coli and P. aeruginosa respectively .The results lend scientific credence to justify the use of the Solasodine compound against bacterial isolates of the wounds and some bacterial diseases

THE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CYPERUS LONGOUS (CYPERACEAE) AND TOW DRUGS (TINIDAZOLE AND PRAZIQUANTEL) ON KILLING THE PROTOSCOLICES OF ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS IN VITRO.

Fatin Abdul.Jabbar-Mustafa

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 148-160

The protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro compared with the two drugs Tinidazole and Praziquantel using the concentrations (5 , 10 , 15 , 20) % of the plant extracts and (1.25 , 1.8 , 2.5) % for Tinidazole and (0.1 , 0.15 , 0.2) % for Praziquantel respectively. The study shows that the aqueous extract at 20% have showen highest protoscolicidal activity. All the protoscolices were killed in the first day after treatment. While the concentration 5% shows the lowest activity in killing the protoscolices which was in the 6th day , while the time of killing protoscolices was in the 3rd day and 2nd day at the concentration (10 , 15)% respectively.
There is no significant differences between aqueous and alcoholic extract of Cyperus longous P< 0.01 , so aqueous extract used in our study because of its lower price and its safety.
Tinidazole and Praziquantel have showen the great activity on killing the protoscolices in the 30 & 60 minutes at (2.5 , 0.2) % respectively.
The preservative solution (Hankُ s solution). Keep the protoscolices viable 59% to 21 days.

HISTPATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF METHOTREXATE ON MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS IN WHITE MICE

Khalil G. Chelab; Saleh K. Majeed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 161-172

The present study was conducted on (40) white mice of approximately the same age (4-6 weeks) and body weight (23-25 gm) for the aim of observing the histopathological changes for male and female reproductive organs due to prolonged treatment (6 months) with anticancer chemotherapeutic agent namely methotrexate.
Forty mice were divided into 4 groups (10 mice of each group 5 mice per sex). The first group (low or therapeutic dose group) was received 0.15 mg/kg B.W. The second group (intermediate dose group ) received 0.3 mg/kg B.W. The third group ( toxic dose group ) received 0.45 mg/kg B.W. the fourth group was a control group; it received 0.2 ml buffered physiological saline.
All these groups injected intramuscularly, once weekly for 6 months. The results showed that methotrexate can cause suppression of spermatogenesis. In female, methotrexate can cause obvious pathological changes in uteri and ovaries such as reduced endometrial glands and ovarian follicles respectively

EXPERIMENTAL Trichophytone Mentogrophytes Var Mentogrophytes INFECTION IN RABBITS: CORRELATION BETWEEN IMMUNOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL OBSERVATION.

Nawzat Abuzaid Issa

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 173-180

To questing the severity and courses of experimental infection with Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes in four groups of eight rabbits, prepared HIS against the fungus was used in different routs and doses in two groups (second and third group). 0.2ml subcutaneously in 2nd group and0.1 ml interadermally in 3rd group. The shorter course of the infection was recorded in 1st group previously infected and left with out treatment with HIS, while complete healing was recoded after 5 weeks and 8 weeks in 2nd and 3rd group respectively in compared to 4th group ( control group) after 10 weeks.

THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF IPOMOEA PURPUREA AND ANTHOCYANINE PIGMENT EXTRACTS AGAINST GRAM POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE BACTERIA

Fatima Saiwan; Neeran Jassim Al-Salhi; Zeenah Weheed Atwan

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 181-189

In this study ,the antibacterial activity of aqueous and purified pigment extracts of Ipomoea purpurea were tested against reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichia coli . The preliminary qualitative tests showed that the two extracts have flavonoids, carbohydrates and glycosides ,While alkaloids found only in the aqueous extract ,Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) showed the presence of anthocyanin pigment , both extracts gave a clear activity against the tested strains with a minimal Inhibitory Concentration reached to 25mg/ml

THE IN VITRO SENSITIVITY PATTERNS PF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS TO 11 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS.

Lamyaa Kadhum Bakir

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 190-199

Due to an increase in the number of resistant bacterial strains that cause urinary tract infection (UTI), empirical treatment with the commonly prescribed antimicrobials might be inadequate. This prospective study was conducted on 252 adult patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infection aiming at optimizing the use of empirical antibacterial therapy through identification of the causative bacteria and studying their in vitro sensitivity patterns to 11 commonly prescribed antimicrobial drugs. This study showed that gram negative bacteria were the most frequent cause of UTI accounting for 95.3% of cases, with strains of Escherichia coli alone responsible for 50% of all infections. The study also recorded an increase in the rate of infection caused by Klebsilla which was reported in 28.6% of cases. Combined drug therapy was not superior to single antimicrobial. Agumentin or Co- trimoxazole were effective against only 78.6% and 43.7% of the tested bacterial strains. Single drug treatment using the aminoglycoside, Amikacin (92.9% bacterial sensitivity rate) or the third generation cephalosporin, Cefotaxime (88.9% bacterial sensitivity rate) might be the first choice for injectable drug treatment and ciprofloxacin (81% bacterial sensitivity) for orai therapy. It is concluded that periodic reevaluation of bacterial etiology and antimicrobial resistance studies and needed for better empirical treatment of uncomplicated UTI through the avoidance of continuous bacterial resistance to such treatment.