Volume 8, Issue 1, Spring 2009, Page 1-174


HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY LEAD NITRATES IN THE GILLS OF GRASS CARP, Ctenopharyngodon idelia (Val.) JUVENILES

Jabbar K. Abdul-Hassan and Entesar Sh. Hashim

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

The present study showed that the lead had toxic effects on the gill structures of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles such as clubbing molting of epithelial cells, epithelial separation, necrosis, fusion of adjacent lamellar epithelium and hyperplasia of secondary lamellar epithelium, destruction of epithelial cells, curved of epithelial, loose in regular shape of epithelium, bite and bleeding tissues through exposure for 48 hrs. All these histological changes depended on lead concentration and exposure period.

THE EFFECT OF HCG, 17 Β-ESTRADIOL AND HYDROCORTISONE ON BLOOD CHOLESTEROL,

Wasfi Dhahir Abd Ali Al -Mahmod

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 11-18

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of human chorionic gonadotophic (HCG), 17β-estradiol and hydrocortisone on some blood parameters and body weight in female rabbits.
Twenty local rabbits were subdivided randomly and equally into four groups . The1st group used as control . The 2nd group was injected daily (30 IU /kg B.W) HCG intramuscularly . The 3rd group was injected subcutaneously daily with 0.1 mg /kg B.W s/c 17 β-estradiol and the 4th group was injected daily 0.1 mg /kg B.W intramuscularly hydrocortisone. After five weeks blood serum was tested for total Cholesterol, HDL(height density lipo-protein), LDL (low density lipo- protein),TG (triglycerides), total protein and pH. Body weight was taken dialy from first day .
The results showed that the administration of HCG raised high significantly LDL(p>0.01) while total Cholesterol , TG, glucose failed to reach the significant level, .However HCG significantly lowered HDL (p>0.01) Total protein and body weight were decreased with no change in blood pH compared with the control group. The treatment with 17β-estradiol decreased the level of cholesterol , , TG and lowered significantly HDL(p 0.05 >and increased significantly LDL (p > ( 0.05. Glucose and total protein were increased with no significant effect on body weight and pH compared with the control group. While hydrocortisone increased ,HDL ,TG ,LDL and glucose and decreased cholesterol and total protein level moreover body weight and pH did n,t effected

ِTHE MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE CAECUM IN BROILER CHICKEN

M. F. Majeed; F.S. Al- Asadi; A. N. Al. Nassir; E. H.Rahi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 19-25

Morphological and histological study were performed in the cecum of ten, six months broiler chicken. The present study was observed that the morphological study distinguished three region from cecum .The proximal ,middle ,and distal represented (23.65%),(42.28%),(34.06%) respectively of the total length of right caecum ,and (23.59%),(43.45%),(23.95%) respectively of the total length of left caecum.The total length of the right caecum were(13.15±0.21)while the total length of left caecum were(13.14±0.44),also was observed that caecal wall composed of four layers( mucosa , submucosa , muscularis and serosa) .The regions of caecum were proximal with developed villi and numerous folds, middle with small villi and numerous folds,while the distal with small villi and avoid of folds .In present study the lymphatic nodules were mostly found in proximal part, but they were less prominent at the distal and least in the middle part of the caecum .the wide and length of lymphatic nodules were more major in the distal part than in the middle and proximal part

CYTOTOXICITY AND INHIBITORY EFFECT OF PARA-AMINO PHENYL MERCURY(II) ACETATE AGAINST GROWTH OF SOME BACTERIA (IN VITRO)

Shaker. A.N.Al-Jadaan; Sabaa Ali Mohammed Al-Fadal and Rafeef Amer AbdulJabar Al-Samaraie

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 39-47

It was found that 0.1gm of para-aminophenyl mercuric acetate PAPMA dissolved in 10ml of distilled water added in to,Muller-Hinton agar, inhibited the growth of four standard strains bacteria [E.coli ATCC25922, S.aureus ATCC 25923, P.aeruginosa ATCC27853 and S.aureus NCTC6571] and four clinical strains bacteria positive and negative to gram stain [Klebsiella sp.,from blood isolate , E.coli, from stool isolate, Staphylococcus sp., from blood isolate, and Proteus sp.,from urine isolate]. Higher concentrations of PAPMA solution in to the medium inhibited growth of bacteria under study more strongly. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and cytotoxicity of PAPMA were studied against human blood and it was found that it has no hemolytic in RBCs for human in 1– 5µg/ml. The acute toxicity LD50 of PAPMA was studied and it was about 11.3mg/Kg.

THE INFLUENCE OF WHOLE SONICATE BRUCELLA ABORTUS ANTIGEN ON THE CANDIDA ALBICANS INFECTION IN MICE

M.J; S.S; I.A; Al-Oubaidy; Alwan; Al-Zubaidy

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 48-59

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of immunization with whole sonicate Brucella abortus antigen on the mice infected with Candida albicans, for that, Twenty one white mice ,both sexes, average weight 20-24g, were divided randomly into (3) equal groups.
First group immunized with (0.5)ml of sonicated brucella antigen, two doses, 10 days interval, skin test was done 27 days post-vaccination, 2nd group and 3rd groups served as positive and negative control group respectively. (30) days post-vaccination, 1st and 2nd groups were challenged with (0.5)ml of inoculums (1X10yeast/ml), C. albicans I/P. 3rd group was injected with (0.5)ml of sterile normal saline I/p.
The results showed that the immunized animals revealed cellular immune response, negative fungal isolates and minor pathological changes in compared with positive control. Positive control animals show severs fungal isolates from internal organs with sever pathological changes characterized mainly by polymorphonuclear cells infiltration and multiple foci of granulomatous lesion.

UTERINE ADENOMYOSIS IN SHE BUFFALOES: A HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY.

Abdalbari A. Alfaris; Tahir A. Fahid

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 60-64

Adenomyosis is a fairly frequent disorder adult she Buffalo characterized by the haphazard location of endometrial glands and stroma deep within the myometrium of the uterus.
It was found in twenty she buffalo in Basrah governorate, suffering from repeated estrus and infertility. This study recorded the histopathological changes of this disease.
This study showed that the endometrial glands are present mostly in myometrium which interfere the differentiation of the uterine cells in young female buffalo, the lesion also characterize by the fibrocytes as whorls pattern.

THE ABILITY OF COMMON CARP CYPRINUS CARPIO TO DIGEST DIFFERENT CARBOHYDRATE SOURCES

Batool Hussain Hatam Al-Mhauwi; Alaa Tariq Abdul wahid; Adil Yousif Al-Dubaikel

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 65-70

Oral carbohydrate administration tests were used to gain more insight into the ability of common carp Cyprinus Carpio to digest different sources of carbohydrates. Four carbohyd- rates were administered orally after the common carp were fasted for 24h. Blood was sampled from fish at selected time intervals from 1 to 4h. Higher blood glucose level(p<0.05) was found in fish fed on maltose. Fish fed the diet containing cellulose showed a lower glucose level. The blood glucose level of common carp peaked at 1h (373gm/dL for maltose ;81gm/dLfor celluose)and at 3h(214gm/dL for lactose;184gm/dL for agar)after the oral admin- istration of carbohydrate. The maximum blood glucose level of 373 mg/dL observed at1h period following the maltose administration was significantly different from the maximum level observed at the same period following the cellulose administration.The maximum blood glucose level of 214 mg/dL observed at 3h period following lactose administration was significantly different from the maximum level observed at same period following the agar administration. Oral maltose resulted in apersistent hyperglycemia indicative of a diabetic-like status. Lactose appeared to be poorly absorbed from the intestinal tract and did not appear to be converted into glucose and galactose.These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that certain fishes, including the Cyprinus Carpio, resemble diabetic animals by having insufficient insulin for maximum carbohydrate utilization

BACTERIOLOGICAL , PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF SHEEP’S URINE

Abeer Lylee Mohammed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 71-77

This study conducted to evaluated 150 sheep urine sample [91 female (59) male] for the physical characteristic (color, odor, and specific gravity), chemical characteristic (ketone bodies and glucose) and for the presence of bacterial isolates.
Most urine samples have amber color and ammonia odor especially the samples which show positive results in bacterial isolate, while presence of ketone bodies was indicated by the appearance of fruity odor.
This study showed that 48 (32%) of urine samples are ketone positive [34 (37.36%) females and 14 (23.72%) males], and 42 (28%) of samples are glucose positive[26 (28.57%) females and 16 (27.11%) males]. Where as the bacteriological examination of urine revealed that 38 (32%) of female urine samples show positive results in bacterial isolation including 15 (16.48%) Escherichia coli, 11 (12.08%) Staphylococcus aureas, 6 (6.59%) streptococcus spp., 4 (4.39%) Proteus spp. and 2 (2.19%) Klebsilla spp. . While the results of bacterial examination of male urine samples revealed that 20 (33.89%) show positive bacterial isolation including 8 (13.55%) E. coli, 6 (10.16%) Staph. aureus, 3 (5.08%) Sterpt. Spp. and 3(5.08%) Proteus spp.

TROCARIZATION FOR DIAGNOSIS OF SARCOCYSTOSIS IN SHEEP

Al-Bayati; Saad M. H; Mwafaq S. Q; Nadheem J; Hussain; Barwary

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 78-87

Trocarization was used for diagnosis of sheep sarcocystosis for the first time with current study by using human biopsy needle. The obtained samples
exposed to recommended sarcocystosis diagnosis techniques ( Trichinoscopy,
Post trichinoscopy drop examination , Peptic digestion method and histopathlogical method ) .
Out of eleven biopsy samples ( taken from the oblique muscles of the left flank )Trichinoscopy was the less sensitive ( 7/11 ) , Post trichinoscopy drop examination ( 9/11 and lately the most efficient methods which are Peptic digestion ( 11/11) and histopathological method (3/3 ).
The biopsy technique showed to be suitable for sarcocystosis diagnosis in
sheep without any effects on the live of the animals which make it the preferable
method for advance researchs.

SOME HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIO CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF SHEEP REARED IN AREAS EXPOSED TO DEPLETED URANIUM

Zeinab A. J.R . Al-Ali; Razak N .Khudayar; Taha; Taha J. A l; Abdul

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 88-92

A study was conducted during the autumn of 2000 with sheep fed on pasture from areas very near to the military operations yards in which bombs containing depleted uranium were used during 1991 war. These areas were:Safwan, Zubair, North Rumaila, tanks grave yards and Sanam Mountain. 18 samples were collected from sheep grazed in these areas Tow methods were used to measure the Radioactive nucleosides in the blood; Lyoluminescence and Track detectors methods, so that blood samples were divided into radiated and non radiated. Results of the hematological evaluation showed no significant difference between radiated and non radiated samples in Hb, PCY, and RBC. Insignificant increase was noticed in total and differential leukocytes of radiated blood samples-The biochemical parameters were also insignificantly changed in radiated blood samples as compared with those obtained from non radiated animals. These includes; total protein, cholesterol .Blood serum enzymes showed significant decreased in Aspartate aminotrasferase (AST) , while no such changes were observed in, Alaninaminotransferase (ALT), and Alkaline Phosphates (ALP)

COMPARISON BETWEEN COMPETITIVE ELISA AND ROSE-BENGAL TESTS IN DETECTION OF BRUCELLA ANTIBODIES IN BUFFALO SERA IN MOSUL CITY, IRAQ

O. Kh.Al-Hankawe; M.O. Abdul-Majeed; O.M.Al-Iraqi; M.I.Al-Farwachi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 93-97

The present study was conducted to compare C-ELISA and Rose-Bengal tests in detection of brucella antibodies in buffalo sera in Mosul city, using 132 adult females of indigenous buffaloes from May 2007 to May 2008. Seroprevalence was 50.8% using C-ELISA, and 28.8% when RBT have been used. The data obtained were analyzed statistically to identify the agreement between C-ELISA and RBT using Kappa value. Kappa index was (0.353), which indicates less agreement between the two tests. There were false-negative results of RBT in 36 samples out of 67 samples positive to C-ELISA, and 7 samples recorded as false-positive with RBT out of 65 samples negative to C-ELISA.

EFFECT OF CHICORIUM INTYBUS EXTRACT ON HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN LIVER AND KIDNEY OF HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RABBITS

Nawras A. Alwan

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 98-107

In this study, the experiment was designed to investigate the effect of daily oral administration of (0.5gm/kg. B.W) of chicory (Chicorium intybus) for one month on weight and histology of kidney and liver of hypercholesterolemic rabbits (induced by oral administration of 0.5 gm/kg of cholesterol dissolved in 3ml Soya bean oil) and compared this effect with medicial therapy used for atherosclerosis treatment .
The results revealed a significant increase (P <0.05) the weights of livers and kidneys in hypercholesterolemic group when compared with other groups ,while the histopathological results showed histological changes in the livers and kidneys of hypercholesterolemic rabbits and also in chicory treated group when compared with other groups.

THE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CYPERUS LONGOUS (CYPERACEAE) AND TOW DRUGS (TINIDAZOLE AND PRAZIQUANTEL) ON KILLING THE PROTOSCOLICES OF ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS IN VITRO.

Fatin Abdul-Jabbar-Mustafa

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 108-115

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Cyperus longous (Rhizomes) on killing the (larval stage) protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro compared with the two drugs Tinidazole and Praziquantel using the concentrations (5 , 10 , 15 , 20) % of the plant extracts and (1.25 , 1.8 , 2.5) % for Tinidazole and (0.1 , 0.15 , 0.2) % for Praziquantel respectively. The study shows that the aqueous extract at 20% have showen highest protoscolicidal activity.
All the protoscolices were killed in the first day after treatment. While the concentration 5% shows the lowest activity in killing the protoscolices which was in the 6th day , while the time of killing protoscolices was in the 3rd day and 2nd day at the concentration (10 , 15)% respectively.
There is no significant differences between aqueous and alcoholic extract of Cyperus longous P< 0.01 , so aqueous extract used in our study because of its lower price and its safety.
Tinidazole and Praziquantel have showen the great activity on killing the protoscolices in the ½ an hour and an hour at (2.5 , 0.2) % respectively.
The preservative solution ( Hankُ s solution). Keep the protoscolices viable 59% to 21 days.

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF VITAMIN C ON STRESS AND LYMPHOCYTES PARAMETERS IN LIBRATORY RATS.

Nowfel H.Jassim

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 124-129

The studied of effects of vitamin C administration on the leukcocyte counts and testing of exercise of male rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups; the first group contain the control and the other group contain the administration with different doses of ascorbic acid (35mg, 75 mg, and 120 mg/day; respectively. The doses were giving by intra-peritoneal injection. Physiological solution was given to the control group (CON) via the same procedure. Exercise performance was based on swim time to fatigue. Blood samples were taken and evaluated at day 10, 20 and 30 days. The lymphocyte percentage was 55.3 ± 5 % for CON on day 28. For all C groups, the range of the lymphocyte percentage was 54.5 %- 64.1 % (p < 0.001). Swim time was 1.6 ± 0.3 min at day 30. This value was increased to 5.1- 8.4 min for the C groups (p < 0.001).

HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF EARLY EVENTS DURING WOUND HEALING IN RABBITS

Abdalbari A. Alfars

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 130-137

An attempt was made to have a better understanding of wound healing in skin of adult rabbits. Stages of healing showed in during microscopic changes in epidermal and dermal regions. The ratio of changes was rapid up during 48 hours. The epithelium invaded actively underlying connective tissue. There was a closely packed mass of cells immediately subjacent to the epithelium, also there was an appearance of collagen fibers laying between the cells. Close contact between dermal and epidermal cells was happened at the time when epithelial invasion and basement membrane was reformed close to the epithelium.

ٍSELECTIVE EVALUATION OF CERTAIN BLOOD AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LOCAL CATTLE DURING WINTER AND SUMMER SEASONS

Rashad F .Ghadhbam; Muna H. AL-Saeed; Haidar K. A

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 138-143

This study was done to find out the effect of seasonal variations on the hematological and blood biochemical parameters of local cattle raised in Maysan Governorate. A number of 40 healthy cows were selected for the study during winter and summer seasons, blood samples were collected in each of the two seasons and were analyzed for some hematological and biochemical parameters. The results in the winter season showed significantly higher values of Mean Corpuscular Volume, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin and creatinine but lower values of total white blood cells count, differential leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration, AST and ALT than that of the same animals during the summer season. However, no significant differences in the erythrocyte count, haematocrite between the two seasons were observed in the local cattle.

ISOLATION OF PLASMID DNA FROM STREPTOMYCES SP. BACTERIA AND ESCHERICHIA COLI PBR322 TRANSFORMATION

Y.AL-hejjaj; Murtakab; Fawziah A. Abdullah; Kawther H. Mehdi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 144-156

The local Streptomyces sp. strain showed an ability to produce antimicrobial metabolite active against standard strains, in primary and secondary screening. The produced antibiotic was extracted, purified and identified as a peptide antibiotic produced about 1.4g/L in 7 days incubation period, and its LD50 was 5500.
There was an inverse effect for orange acridine dye on the grown colonies number of S. sp., the 28 g/ml dye concentration was chosen as the best concentration because it led to colonies killing by 95%. Plasmid DNA extracted from S. sp. and then transformed to E. coli pBR 322, the E. coli pBR 322 showed negative results against the standard strains in primary screening before plasmid DNA transformation, while transformed E. coli pBR322 showed positive results. The antibiotic produced by trans. E. coli pBR322 was extracted, purified and identified by the same ways, which gave the same antibiotic produced by S. sp. with an increase of 2.2 g/L in the quantity and shorter period of time (2 days).

EVALUATION OF ANAESTHETIC ACTIVITY OF FENTANYL, XYLAZINE AND KETAMINE IN DOMESTICATED PIGEONS

Wisam. H. S. AL-Shebani

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 157-165

The present study was designed to investigate the sedative anaesthetic activity of a combination of Xylazine (X), Fentanyl (F) and Ketamine (K) in local domestic pigeons. Twelve pigeons of either sex were used. The combination of (X) and (K) were administered as pre-medication to induce sedation. Fiften minutes, after (X+F) administration, (K) was injected. All drugs were injected into the pectoral muscles. The anaesthetic effect of these drugs was reversed by injection of Yohambine (Y) and Naloxone (N) combination subcutaneously. The sedative and anesthetic activity of the (X+F-K) combination and, alterations in heart rate (RR), Respiratory rate (RR) and cloacal temperature (CT) were investigated at 10 minute before (X+F) injection, 10 and 15 minute after (X+F) administration, 5, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 minutes, after (K) injection and at 1, 5, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 60 minutes after (Y+N) injection.
The HR, RR and CT of pigeon decreased within 10 minute after (X+F) injection and remained lower until its improvement after (Y-N) injection. The drugs combination used in this study produced a satisfactory general anaesthesia in ten of the twelve pigeons. The (Y-N) combination was an effective reverse that provide safe recovery from this anaesthetic protocol in pigeons.

HISTPATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF METHOTREXATE ON MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS IN WHITE MICE

Khalil G. Chelab; Saleh K. Majeed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 166-174

The present study was conducted on (40) white mice of approximately the same age (4-6 weeks) and body weight (23-25 gm) for the aim of observing the histopathological changes for male and female reproductive organs due to prolonged treatment (6 months) with anticancer chemotherapeutic agent namely methotrexate.
Forty mice were divided into 4 groups (10 mice of each group 5 mice per sex). The first group (low or therapeutic dose group ) was received 0.15 mg/kg B.W. The second group ( intermediate dose group ) received 0.3 mg/kg B.W. The third group ( toxic dose group ) received 0.45 mg/kg B.W. the fourth group was a control group; it received 0.2 ml buffered physiological saline.
All these groups injected intramuscularly, once weekly for 6 months. The results showed that methotrexate can cause suppression of spermatogenesis. In female, methotrexate can cause obvious pathological changes in uteri and ovaries such as reduced endometrial glands and ovarian follicles respectively