Volume 9, Issue 2, Autumn 2010, Page 1-171


EVALUALATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FRESH RHIZOMES EXTRACTION FROM ZINGIBER OFFICINAL

Hanaa Khlil Ibrahim

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-8

Investigation of antibacterial activity of ethanolic , methanolic and ginger oil were carried out in this study on Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria . The study exhibited these bacteria have variable susceptibities against these extracts and depend on type of bacteria . The notes was shown the highest effect and wide diameter of growth inhibition zone against Escherichia coli .

THE CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF CHITOSAN APPLIED LOCALLY ON THE HEALING OF EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED TEAT FISTULA IN GOATS.

Ayad A.J Amin; Ahmed Oglla Dawood

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 9-21

The clinical and histopathological the effect of chitosan applied locally on the healing of experimentally induced teat fistula in goats. Sixteen local breed goats have been used, aged range between (1.2-2) years with body weight (30+-5) kg. Animals were randomly allotted into two equal groups.
An artificial teat fistula of one cm.length was done for all animals under the effect of local analgesia and deep sedation. The first group, fistula was treated with chitosan 0.5gm and then closed by suture; while the second group (control one), fistula was closed routinely "via suture without any addition. After daily clinical follow-up, mild local reaction include local redness and swelling of the operative site and systemic mild hyperthermia, decrease ruminal contraction, increase respiratory rate.
Histopathological examinations were performed on all animals. Eight animals used for each group :( 2 for each period).
Sections were stained with hematoxylin –eosin stain. Results of Histopathological examination in treated group reflected the presence of large numbers of neutrophils
In the first three days postoperatively , granulation tissue were seen in the sixty days which converted to cellular connective tissue in the ninth day with congested blood vessels .in addition there are lymphocytic aggregations ,arrangement of collagen fibers and formation of new epidermis during the 12th .days.
In conclusion we can say that chitosan play an important role in enhancing repair of teat fistula.

THE INFLUENCE OF HEAVY METALS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND PSEUDOMONAS AEROGINOSA ISOLATES

Mohammed H. Khudor

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 22-38

Two isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeroginosa of bacteria were exposed to different concentrations ( 5 , 10 or 25 mg /l )of heavy metals ions ( Silver Ag2+ , Cobalt Co2+ or Lead Pb2+) for different exposure periods ( 0 , 1, 2, 24 and 48 hrs.) .The results showed that the inhibitory effect of these metals on the growth of the two isolates were in the following sequences :- Pb < Co < Ag
Some of these metals caused an elongation of lag phase in liquid medium for these isolates . Whene antibiotic discs ( chloramphenicol 30 mcg , clindamycin 2 mcg , erythromycin 15 mcg , gentamycin 10 mcg ,tetracyclin 30 mcg and vancomycin 30 mcg ) were added to solid medium which was previously supplemented with the above heavy metals ions , a synergestics effect was observed between antibiotics and heavy metals ions ( specially silver ions at 25 mg/ l )to increase the inhibition zone significantly ( P < 0.01 ) for both isolates .

STUDIES ON ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE PLANT

Asia Selman Abdullah; Amal Abdul-Jaleel Mahdi; Kawther Hawaaz

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 39-47

Alcohol extracts of the plant Salicornia herbacea L. were prepared, and found to be very effective against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.
Cytotoxicit againsty human red blood cells, were studied and found that alcohol extract is not toxic, has a toxicity of 2500mg/ml.
Biological characteristics were studied by the measurement of minimum inhibitory concentrations on isolates of standard and pathological, Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.
Minimum lethal dose that kill 50% of population (LD50) of Alcohol extracts were measured and found to be 6000mg/kg.
Stability of Alcohol extracts at different pH and temperature ranges were measured also.

STUDY OF SOME PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MICE GROUPS INDUCED BY MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS AND TREATED WITH ETHAMBUTOL

Suhair H. Al-kutbi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 48-61

The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the histopathological changes and the efficacy of ethambutol of treatment mice infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Thirty of white Swisrland mice is 6-8 weeks age, weighted 20-25gm were used they were randomly divided into 3 groups contain of 10 animals for each group.
- The 1st group (infected animal group) were inoculate.ed with 0.1 ml of bacterial suspension contain 1x108 cfu/ml intraperitonialy.
- The 2nd group (group of infected-treated animal) were also infected as the fist group but after 30 day of infection were treated with 0.1 ml of ethambutol was given orally for 1 30 days.
- The 3rd group maintained as a control and were inoculated with 1 ml of sterial normal saline intraperitonealy.
At 60 day post infection all animals were sacrified and samples from different organs (liver, lungs, kidncys, spleen, intestine) were isolated for that histopathological examination.
The result showed sever pathological lesion such as granulomatous lesions in lungs and livers of infected animals, with depletion of white pulp of spleen and conjestion with degenerative changes seen in kidneys and intestine with infiltration of inflammatory cells. While the infected-treated animals show mild or no pathological lesion in their internal organs.

MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE GLANDULAR PROCTODEALIS (FOAM GLAND) OF THE MALE QUAIL (COURNIX COTURNIX) IN IRAQ.

S.K. Majeed and; B.F. Al-Shamary; A.M. Hussin

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 62-69

Proctodeal gland (foam gland) of adult male Asian quail (Coturnix coturnix) was studied microscopically. The study declared firstly the foamy appearance of the male quail proctodeal gland and assure its importance for the sexual activity and its absence from the female quail and its species specificity for only the male quail in comparison to the male turkey. The present work also try to compare functionally between male quail proctodeal gland and other accessory sex glands, such as Cowper's gland and seminal vesicle gland

HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE THYROID AND PARATHYROID GLANDS IN IRAQI BUFFALO "BUBALUS BUBALIS" WITH REFERRING TO THE SEASONAL CHANGES

Amer M. Hussin; Muntadhar M. Al-Taay

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 70-88

The present study included the collection of thyroid and parathyroid glands from the abattoirs of middle of Iraq in Summer and Winter seasons 2006-2007. The samples were fixed by 10% formalin and processed by the routine histological techniques, then stained by H and E, PAS and Van Gieson stain, then studied under light microscope. Dimensions were measured by ocular micrometer. Analysis of data was done by T-test.
The most striking result declared that the thyroid gland showed no differences in histological characters between both seasons as the buffalo was poor thermoregulator animal. It is tempting to speculate that the thyroid gland provide an adaptive advantage for survival of the buffalo in the nature arid environment. The parafollicular cells (C-cells) were sparse and found singly in the thyroid glands. Flat dark nuclei of myoepithelial cells were recognized around the thyroid follicles. This study was referred to the presence of accessory thyroid gland which contains simple follicular epithelium, and little amount of the colloid. Our current study revealed the presence of internal and external parathyroids. The oxyphilic cells in the internal parathyroid gland were not observed.
Note: this work in part of Master Science Thesis, submitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University.

MOBILE MICROWAVE EFFECT ON BACTERIAL ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY

Eman T. Ali; Abdulelah A. Al-Mayah

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 89-102

The effect of mobile microwave on antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus ureus was estimated. One hundered samples of ear swab were collected from mobile phone users. They were subjected for S. aureus isolated and identification by Staph API- 20 enzymes. Forty three of Staph. strains were selected as identical biochemical test. They were ordered into eight groups according to calling times of mobile users , ranged from zero (used as control) to three hundred and six hours of calling time. Seventeen different antibiotic discs sensitivity were measured for S. aureus. Microwave of mobile phone showed significant effect (P<0.01) on strains sensitivity according period of calling time. All strains showed more antibiotic resistance development at long calling period group than those have less calling (control and firsts groups). The present study may be explanation of mobile microwave of mobile effect on DNA expression as far as antibiotic resistance encoded by plasmid DNA.

THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COLD AQUEOUS AND PIGMENT OF HIBISCUS ROSA SIENSIS EXTRACTS AGAINST GRAM POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE BACTERIA

Fatima Saiwan; Zeenah Weheed Atwan

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 109-118

The antibacterial activity of aquaeous and purified pigment extracts of Hibiscus rosa siensis in concentration (20,50,100,200,250 mg) were tested against reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichia coli . The preliminary qualitative tests showed that the two extracts have flavonoids, carbohydrates and glycosides ,while alkaloids found only in the aquaeous extract. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) showed the presence of anthocyanin pigment . Both extracts gave a clear activity against the tested strains with a minimal Inhibitory concentration reached to 20 mg/ml.

EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSES INDUCED BY EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF (BALB/c) MICE WITH SALMONELLA HADAR

Afaf Abdul Rahman Yousif; Maan M. Neima AL-Naqeeb

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 119-126

The present study bases on evaluate the immune responses due to experimental infection of (BALB/c) mice by Salmonella hadar .
The experiment was carried out on eighty mice of both genders with age range (6 – 8) weeks old, the mice were divided randomly into three groups (group A:- contain 20 mice were administrated orally with infectious dose (1.5×107C.F.Uml) ,group B:- contain 40 mice were administrated orally with LD50dose (1.5×109 C.F.Uml) and groupC:- contain 20 mice which inoculated orally with 1 ml of PBS (pH=7.2) and consider as control group).
The study has noticed that the experimentally infected mice are able to induce humoral immune response which represented by producing antibody against Salmonella hadar and this production was elevated after two weeks of administration and reach the peak after four weeks post infection then decline sharply after passage of six weeks post infection in both groups (A and B) but the titration of the antibodies in group B was higher on that recorded in group A.
It is obvious that S. hadar is able to induce cellular immune response during experimental infection with infectious dose and LD50 dose and the results of delayed type hypersensitivity have showed increases in the thickness of the right footpads of the mice of both groups (A and B) and the highest mean of the thickness was after 24 hours post immunization.
Finally, we concluded that Salmonella hadar in infected the host was able to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses and these responses are dose dependent.

PREVALENCE OF Listeria monocytogenes IN FROZEN FISH IN BASRAH CITY MARKETS

Ghazi M. Jabir Al- Maliki

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 127-132

ABSTRACT
The present study was performed on 80 samples of frozen fish . The samples were collected from different shops in Basrah city . Listeria spp. Was isolated (13%) of frozen fish , also they were counted in the examined samples. The mean counts were 8.75 x 102 CFU/g. of the fish . L. monocytogenes differentially identified from other Listeria species and could he isolated at (5%) in frozen fish . The drug susceptibility characterization of L. monocytogenes cleared that all isolates (100%) were resistant to Ampicilline and Gentanicine . while the other used antibiotics showed different degrees of antimicrobial sensitivity reactions for streptomycin , Tetracycline , Rifampicine and cefotexim

ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF FENUGREEK) Trigonella foenum-graecum(

Bestoon Mohammad Faraj; Salah Salman Zaen Al-abdeen

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 133-140

Fenugreek has a long history of medical uses in Chinese medicine and Kurdish area .The antibacterial activity of aqueous and some organic compounds extracts of stems, leaves, seeds and roots of fenugreek were tested against three Gram-negative and one Gram-posative bacteria by the well diffusion and colony account methods. The microorganisms used were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. All extracts of the plant did not exhibit any inhibitory activity against any of the microorganisms tested by each well diffusion and colony account technique.

AN EVALUATION OF MASTECTOMY FOR REMOVAL OF MAMMARY GLANDS TUMORS IN BITCHES

Nabeel Abul-Rahman AL-Keledar; Khayreia Kadhim Al-Kadi; Rahi Nahi AL-Asadi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 141-152

ABSTRAT
The aim of this study is an evaluation of mastectomy for removal of mammary glands tumors of bitches referring to histopathological aspect.
During a period of three years extending from March 2007 till March 2010, seventeen bitches were presented to department of surgery-college of veterinary medicine-Baghdad, suffering from mammary glands tumors were treated surgically. Diagnosis of the cases was based on case history, clinical signs, in addition several photographs were taken to denote if there was metastases of the tumor to other organ or not. The definitive diagnosis was confirmed via histopathological examination of tumors biopsies.
The surgical operations were done under the effect of general anesthesia represented by a combination of Ketamine–Xylazine preceding by atropine sulfate. All drugs injected I.M.
Following surgery secondary health problems were happened in seven animals out of (17 treated cases).
Histopathological examination of tumor biopsies obtained from affected glands revealed that the tumor was adenocarcinoma (malignant type).
Finally we can concluded that surgery is an effective method to cure the mammary glands tumors in spite of secondary complications in some bitches, which all responds to treatment with the exception of the dead bitch.

BLOOD PROGESTERONE AND ESTROGEN HORMONES LEVEL DURING PREGNANCY AND AFTER BIRTH IN IRAQI SHEEP AND GOAT

Amin FAM and; Ibrahim NS; Alwan

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 153-157

Serum progesterone and estrogen concentrations were investigated during pregnancy and few days after birth. Blood samples were collected twice / month from 24 numbered animals ( 12ewes and 12 does) . serum was isolated and kept under -20C untill hormonal analysis. Enzyme - Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using (ELISA Reader Dona 3200). Progesterone concentrations of pregnant ewes and does were showed steadily increased to reach 24.9+ 2.5 ng/ml and 30.34+ 2.3ng/ml in ewes and does, during 4th month and declined to 0.6 and 2.5 ng/ ml after birth in ewes and does, respectively. Estrogen hormone levels in ewes were increased significantly during pregnancy to maximum 98.7+4.3ng/ml by 5th month and sharply declined to 4.1+0.06 after birth. While in does estrogen level increased significantly and steadily to 1150.6+ 6.23 pg/ml during last month of pregnancy and to 5.9+ 0.4 pg/ml after birth. The present work indicated levels of progesterone hormone increased during 1st and 2nd months in ewes and does, while the significant increased from 3rd month on . Estrogen reach maximum concentrations during last month in doe Which higher about 11 times than that of ewes .It is useful means to diagnosis pregnancy of ewes and does by hormonal methods after mating 20-30 days.

A ETIOLOGICAL STUDY ON SOME FORMS OF BOVINE PULMONARY IN Al-NASSIRIYA AND AL-BASRAH CITIES LESIONS

Mahdi M. Thueni

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 158-162

In this study , it was aimed to isolate some Bacteria from some pulmonary lesions of various pathological conditions occurring in the lungs of cows. For this aims ,samples of the investigation were obtained through the examination of a total of (660)cows ranging from 3 to 10 years of age were examined for lungs affection during the period from November 2006 to July 2007 .Out of these samples ,(148) lung ,constituting (22.4%)suspected for abnormalities were selected .
The encountered pulmonary lesions which found in our study were (148) cases (22.4%), included 11 various type of pulmonary lesions associated with bacterial isolation. Escherichia coli being the most frequently isolated organism and the number of it's isolates was (68), constituting (34.9%) of the overall number of isolates.
The various bacterial isolates with different pulmonary lesions are mentioned and it's significance is discussed.

ANATOMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE SPLEEN IN IRAQI SHEEP(Awasi sheep)

Eman M. Khalel

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 163-171

This study were carried out on 20 healthy of spleen healthy adult Awasi sheep.The anatomical study include study of length, width Thickness, weight of 10 spleen.The average measurements were 9.93+0.342;6.48+0.233;2.48+0.142 cm and 69+6.663 gram respectively while the histological study include the thickness of capsule and trabeculae ,splenic white pulp diameter ,lymphoid nodule diameter were determind on 10 spleens.The average measurements were 140.5±13.712; 82.75±9.7; 505±34.245; 315.25±23.185 μ respectively.
The periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS) containing One central artery that branched into 2-3 arteries.