Volume 11, Issue 1, Spring 2012, Page 1-363


IN VITRO COMPARATIVE OF DIFFERENT ACYCLOVIR TABLET

Nadheerah Falih Neamah

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-12

The aim of the study was to compare the in vitro performance of different
acyclovir tablets of the same strength from different companies under different trade
names: Acyclovir actavis 400mg tab ,Acic 400mg tab ,and Veramide 400mg tab.,
and compare with pure acyclovir.
The comparison include friability, thickness, and hardness as non official tests, and
dissolution and weight variation as official tests. Dissolution test is the most
important test in which we can determine the real amount of active ingredient
(acyclovir) found in each tablet formulation in addition to the rate of drug release
from these formulation .
The results reveals that no significant changes observed in thickness, hardness
,and Friability ,all the formulation were found within the limits.
The dissolution rate exerts significant differences after 5min, 51.9% of veramide,
76.4% of acyclovir activs, and acic 58.3% in comparison with 88.5% of acyclovir .
After 10 min, only the percentage released from acic.( 75.72% ) was significantly
differ from reference drug acyclovir 94.5% .While the results of this study showed
a significant differences of percentage released after 20 min from veramide
,acyclovir actavis ,and acic are (95.7, 97.2,and 99.1 respectively) in comparison
with acyclovir(99.5%). Amount of drug that released after40 min ,the percentage of
drug released from all test tablets not significantly differ from that released from
acyclovir100%..
Conclusion an attempt was made to compare three acyclovir different forms
Acyclovi actavis , Acic ,and Veramide and compare the dissolution rate with
standard acyclovir .The results showed a significant decrease in dissolution rate
after 5 ,and20 min ,only acic exert a significant reduction after 10 min. All tablets
released active ingredient in non significant manner after 40 min . further in vivo
studies showed be done to reveal how such results affect the pharmacokinetic of
mentioned drugs.

ANTOMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF ESOPHAGUS IN

Shehan. N. A

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 13-22

Esophagus of geese was tubular organ situated at right side of the body. it was divided into,
cervical and thoracic part, the cervical part longer than thoracic part.
The length of cervical part ,crop, thoracic part were recorded and the mean and S.D. was
founded: 16. 4,1 .35cm;7.3,1.06cm;3.83,0.57cm respectively.
The crop was merely enlargement fusiform in shape which located at the entrance of the thorax.
The esophagus parts showed that composed of four layer, the mucosa, sub mucosa, muscular and
serosa. The mucosal layer was thickened in the thoracic part than the crop and constituted by
thick nonkertenized stratified squamous epithelium, lamina propria and mucous glandsThe
mucous glands and nodular lymphatic tissues in was rich in thoracic part. The sub mucous layer
was no evidence and composed of loose connective tissues, the muscular layer constituted by
circular inner and longitudinal extra.Serosa layer composed of connective tissue, collagen and
elastic fibrous.

ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF OREGANO EXTRACTS

Nawrs N.Jaber

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 23-31

Invegstigation of antibacterial activity of water,ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Oregano(Origanum vulgare)and compared with Vancomycin, Erythromycin, cloxacillin ciprofloxacin and Streptomycin antibiotics was carried out on gram positive and Gram microorganisms for different extracts. The zone of inhibition varies depending on bac-terial
ranges from 12 to 26, 14 to 20 and 18 to 22 for water,ethanolic and methanolic
With anMICs of(0.167 0.1033) mg/ml against Bacillus subtilis and against Staphylococ-cus aureus was(0.21±0.102) μg/ml. when comparing the extracts MICs with those of
antibiotics. All extracts showed pronounced antibacterial effects against both Gram posi-tive
and Gram negative bacteria with a significant differences between the effect of extracts &
antibiotics ( p < 0.05 )

DIAGNOSTIC STUDY ON MICROFILARIAE AND SOME BLOOD PROTOZOA IN QUAIL BIRDS (COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA) IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE

Rawaa G. Mohammad

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 32-42

The study covered a diagnosis for detection of microfliaria in 90 blood samples obtained from quail birds. The results recorded that total infestion rate was (15.6%).
Three species of microfliaria have been diagnosed in quail. Form A of detected larvae measured 106 – 125 μm in length and 2.5 –3.0 μm in width, while form B measured 97–145.4 μm in length and 4.0 – 6.0 μm in width , finally form C dimensions measured 120–150 μm and 4.5 – 5.0 μm in width respectively. Knott technique detected most positive cases with higher sensitivity rate 85.7%, than other techniques used in the study. The rate of infection recorded in adult birds 14.5% was little higher than it in young birds 10.7% with no significant statitiscal defferences between males and females. The study showed appearance of 7.7% of mixed infections of microfliaria with Aegyptianella spp. and 4.4% with plasmodium spp. Finally the study pointed that microfliaria appeared with high percentage in circulating blood than peripheral blood of 40 quail birds, as15% and 10%in circulating and peripheral blood respectively.

ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS (Cd, Pb AND Zn) CONTENTS IN LIVERS OF CHICKEN AVAILABLE IN THE LOCAL MARKETS OF BASRAH CITY, IRAQ

Reem Th. Hussain

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 43-51

This study was conducted to determine the concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer ASS) in nine brands of chicken livers: (Keyf-i Gezzet, Al Murad, Al Kafeel, Sadia 2, Sadia 1, Karbala, Halal, Faqeeh, in addition to livers of locally breed chicken), which are widely consumed from the local markets of Basrah city. The levels of metals in the chicken livers were ranged between (0.004) μg/g and (0.124) μg/g for Cd; (0.171) μg/g and (3.269) μg/g for Pb; and (4.116) μg/g and (3.266) μg/g for Zn. The results showed that concentration of Pb in four brands exceeded the permissible limits set by WHO/FAO (1) and ANZFA (2). The concentrations of Cd and Zn in all samples were within the tolerance limits.

BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF CYSTICERCUS TENUICOLLIS OF SHEEP IN DUHOK PROVINCE

saad M; Bayati

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 52-57

Biochemical composition of Cysticercus tenuicollis (n=11) which isolated from local native sheep showed they have varied averages and ranges in compare with plasma level which reflected various stages of growth .Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides total protein, uric acid, urea , Ca2+ ,Mg2+ and creatinine levels were involved.
Histochemical study of parasite bladder revealed it composed from various kind of cells which are fibroblast , mesenchimal cell ,squamous epithelial like cell , and vacuolated undifferentiated cell with semi-gelatinous mucoid tissue.

CLINICAL AND HEMATOLOGICAL STUDY ON OVINE ANAPLASMOSIS IN SULAIMANI PROVINCE- IRAQ.

Bahzad. H. salih Mustafa

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 58-65

A study was carried out on Ovine Anaplasmosis in the Sulaimani province of Iraq from September to December2007. Five hundred thin blood smears were prepared form Peripheral blood of sheep in 10 different localities and stained by Giemsa. The prevalence of Anaplasma Ovis was 24 (4.8%) and the rate was highest 8.8% was among animals above 3 years. The infected animal showed mild fever, hyperpnoea and tachycardia. Hematological values of the infected sheep was as follows: Packed cell volume 22 ± 4.75 % , erythrocyte count 6.42 ± 1.35 ×106/ μl , hemoglobin concentration 6.95 ± 1.28 g/dl , mean corpuscular volume 35.5 ± 5.85/ fl , mean corpuscular Hemoglobin concentration 11..04 ± 2.42/ pg, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31.62 ± 6.62 g/dl and WBCs 11.15 ± 2.18× 10³ /μl , serum protein value 5.875 ± 0.801 mg/dl, serum calcium 8.341± 1.029 mg/dl, conjugate serum bilirubin 0.85 ± 0.314 mg/dl and serum cholesterol 57.291 ± 6.153 mg/dl.

CLINICAL, HEMATOLOGICAL WITH SOME BIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF ACUTE LAMINITIS IN DROUGHT HORSES IN BASRAH

Hussein A. N. Al-Derawie

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 66-73

Clinical sings ,hematology and some biochemical changes have been investigated in local breed drought horse affected with acute laminitis in Basrah-Iraq .The study were conducted on 55 local breed drought horse 2-10 years old and from both sexes, from these ,Forty local breed drought horses show sings of acute laminitis and 15 clinically healthy local breed drought horses served as control . Results showed that diseased animals exhibited different clinical sings include loss of appetite, pain on palpation around the coronet, abnormal standing position with shuffling gait during standing , increase pulse in the palmar digital artery, sweating and anxiety were more prominent, more over body temperature, respiratory and heart rate were also increased .
The results indicated no significant increase in RBC count and Hb while the results indicated significant increase in PCV,ESR and fibrinogen in diseased horses affected with acute laminitis. The results also indicated a significant increase in WBC as a result of significant increase neutrophils . Biochemical changes revealed significant increase in AST, ALT,ALP and total bilirubin, however significant increase in cholesterol were also encountered in affected horses with acute laminitis .

COMPARISON OF THREE INDIRECT TESTS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF BOVINE SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS CAUSED BY COAGULASE NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI WITH THEIR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO SEVEN ANTIBIOTICS.

Ali A. AL-Edany

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 74-83

Two hundred and eighty three bovine milk samples were diagnosed as subclinical mastitis by three indirect tests , the results were reported that the California mastitis test was the best one . Forty –four (15.55%) strains were identified as coagulase –negative staphylococci, Bacteriological cultures of coagulase-negative staphylococci were identified as 14 (31.8%) strains of S. scuiri , 7 (16%) strains of S. lentus,6 (13.6%) strains of S. gallinarum, 4 (9%) for each strains of S. warneri, and S. xylosus , 3 (6.8%) strains of S. saprophyticus , 2 (4.5%) for each strains of S. lugdunensis , S. haemolyticus and strains of S. cohnii. The percentage of antibiotic resistant in CNS were 97.7% for Ampicillin , (86.4% )for Novbiocen +Penicillin and (77.2%) for Oxcillin. While the percentage of antibiotic sensative were (100%) for each of Ciprofloxacin , Chloramphenicol and Gentamycin.

A STUDY OF AEGYPTIANELLA SPP IN SOME SPECIES OF BIRDS IN MOSUL CITY-IRAQ

E.G.Suleiman

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 84-89

During this study examination of 205 blood samples collected from four species of birds , chickens(50), ducks(75), turkeys(30), and pigeon(50) in different regions of Mosul city for the detection of Aegyptianella spp. The total percentage of infection was 28.29% and infection was (33.33%), (30%), (26.66%), and (20%) in ducks ,pigeons, turkeys and chickens respectively . An Anaplasma –like organism form ,rounded and piriform shaped with varying sizes 0.83-4.15μ . Parasitemia in chickens, pigeons, turkeys, and ducks respectively were1.7%, 2.5%, 2.6%, 2.8%.

STUDY ON SOME HORMONAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF FOLLICULAR FLUID AND BLOOD PLASMA IN BUFFALOES

Jassim.M.A.Alkalby

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 90-102

Ovarian physiology is controlled by many exogenous and endogenous factors including the endocrinological and biochemical alteration that occur in the follicular fluid during the estrus cycle. the aim of this study was to determine and compare the concentrations of some hormonal and biochemical composition in peripheral circulation and follicular fluid of buffaloes .For this purpose ,ovaries collected from adult buffaloes immediately after slaughter, and blood samples where also collected from these buffaloes before slaughter in Basra abattoir.
Samples were classified into two groups according to the follicle diameter, small (4-8 mm) and large (> 8 mm). The follicular fluid and plasma samples were analyzed for biochemical composition using commercial kits.
The results showed that small follicles had significant higher (p<0.05) , T3, glucose, and cholesterol concentrations than large follicles while no differences were found in concentrations of TSH between both groups .The concentrations of ,T4, progesterone, estrogen, and total protein were significantly higher (P< 0.05) in large follicles than small follicles.
The results of the present study also indicated that the TSH, T4, glucose, total protein and cholesterol concentrations in the blood plasma were significantly higher

EFFEC OF THE ZINC ON THE SOME OF BLOOD PARAMETER AND SOME ORGANS IN LOCAL DUCK (ANAS PLATER HYCOUS)

Firas Ali Hussein

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 103-115

This experiment was designed to elicit the effect of zinc on the hematological picture and the histological effect on heart, kidney and liver of the domestic ducks. The birds were divided into two groups of eight birds each. The first group was the control group and the second one was the treated group in which the birds were fed the zinc sulphate as 100 mg/kg with food for four weeks.
The results showed a decrease in hemoglobin, MCV, MCH, and MCHC. And an increase in red blood cells blood cholesterol,GOT and GPT. Histologicaly, the results showed a hydropic degeneration in the myocardial and renal cells beside a fatty degeneration in the liver texture

SERUM ESTRADIOL AND PROGESTERONE IN IMMATURE MALE AND FEMALE WATER BUFFALO(BUBALUS BUBALIS) IN MARSHES OF IRAQ

Khalid Al-Fartosi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 116-121

The present study aimed to determine some of reproductive values of water buffaloes in marshes of Iraq which may be used as a primary values for assaying the reproduction and production of water buffaloes. The study performed on immature male and female water buffaloes. Estradiol and progesterone hormones were determined. The results showed effect of sex on the levels of estradiol and progesterone of male and female buffaloes. The age was effective in estradiol and progesterone levels of female buffaloes, while it was no effective on estradiol and progesterone levesl of male water buffaloes.

EVALUATION OF THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY AND ULCEROGENIC LIABILITY OF 5-(3-CHLORO-1-BENZOTHIEN -2-YL)-4-PHENYL-4H-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE-3-THIOL

Mazin N. Mousa

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 122-127

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and the ulcerogenic activity of 5-(3-chloro-1-benzothien -2-yl)-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol. The anti-inflammatory effect of the compound was determined by comparing it with a standard drug (naproxen). The anti-inflammatory effects were studied by using carrageenan-induced paw edema method and Cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats and the ulcerogenic liability was assessed and compared with a standard drug. The results showed that the compound had an obvious anti-inflammatory effect and the activity is comparable to that of the standard drug with less ulcerogenic effects.

MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDY FOR THE KIDNEYS OF COOT BIRD ( Fulica atra )

Abbas Lafi Batah

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 128-136

Present study were carried out on ten adult males of coot bird, for determinate the histological structure of kidneys. The results were showed that each kidney consisted of three parts, a large cranial (mean of its length 28±0.15mm and its width13±0.08mm),a small caudal (mean of its length 13±0.07mm and its width 4±0.08mm) and a middle part (mean of its length30±0.08mm and its width7.5±0.10mm ) .
Histological results were showed that the kidneys consisted of cortex and medulla, the cortex made up the majority of the kidney and composed of large and small renal corpucles,each renal corpuscle consisted of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus .The proximal convoluted tubules were lined by simple cuboidal epithelium .The distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules were lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. The macula densa was situated at vascular pole of glomerulus in close to distal convoluted tubules.
Medulla of kidney was composed of thin and thick segment of henles loop and collecting ducts and these structures were lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. The collecting ducts continued to form the papillary ducts which lined by simple columnar epithelium.
Key words: kidneys, coot bird, nephrons ,glomerulus ,histological.

IN VITRO EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL GARLIC EXTRACTION , FORMALIN AND GLUCOSE ON PROTOSCOLICES OF ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS.

Haydar Abdul Jaleel Rhadi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 137-147

This study to evaluate the protoscolicidal effects of various concentration of alcohol garlic extraction ,formalin and glucose .Liver and lung protoscolices of sheep were exposed to 100ul,200 ul,500 ul & 1000 ul of alcohol garlic extraction ;100ul ,500 ul & 1000 ul of formalin; 10%,20% ,30% &50% of glucose were used as the positive control ,while physiological saline was used as negative control. Viability
of protoscolices was determined using 1% of aqueous eosin stain method. The percentage ( 100%) of mean of dead protoscolices after 1 hr ,2.5 hr , 3 hr& 5 hr of 1000 ul, 500 ul ,200 ul & 100 ul of alcohol garlic extraction respectively . The statistical analysis ( T- test ) showed that was significant differences between the means protoscolicidal effects of alcohol garlic extraction & physiological saline (P<0.01).
The percentage average of dead protoscolices (100%) in ( 10,15,20 ) min after exposure with ( 1000 ,500 &100 ) ul of formalin respectively. The statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference between the protoscolicidal effect of formalin & physiological saline ( P < 001).
The percentage average of dead protoscolices (100 %) was noticed with 50 % of glucose after exposure 10 min &3 hr,4 hr after treated with 30 % & 20 % of glucose

INFECTIOUS KERATO-COUNJUNCTIVITIS IN LOCAL BUFFALOES BREEDS IN MOSUL, MOSUL- IRAQ

Kamal M. Alsaad

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 148-154

The objective of this study was to investigate infectious keratoconjunctivitis in local buffaloes breed in Mosul (Mosul-Iraq). The study was conducted on (360) local buffaloes breed of different ages and both sexes. Animals were belong to different privet farms in Mosul area, and reared indoor or grazed during the day light. Result revealed that out of (360) animals, (80) animals have been exhibited the clinical sings of keratoconjusnctivitis, with a prevalence rate of (22.2%). Diseased animals show sings of, conjunctival hyperemia, serious, mucoid and/or purulent ocular secretions, photophobia, blepherospasim, congregation of flies on the eyes, edematous eyes anxiety, and corneal opacity. Results were also indicated different causative agents which were responsible for the disease, Morexella spp., Corynebacterium spp., Listeria spp and E.coli. being the most important and common isolated, moreover Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Niesseria spp. Actinobacillus spp., Klebseilla spp., and Proteus spp., were also detected.

KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS IN DROUGHT HORSES IN BASRAH, BASRAH-IRAQ

Kamal M. Alsaad

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 155-163

The objective of the present work was to investigate infectious kerato-conjunctivitis in drought horses in Basrah Province (Basrah-Iraq). The study was conducted on (200) local drought horses (3-10) years old and of both sexes. Animals were brought and examined at the consultant veterinary hospital-college of veterinary medicine-university of Basrah, during the period from July 2007 to June 2008. Result revealed that out of (200) drought horses, (77) animals have been exhibited the clinical sings of keratoconjusnctivitis, with a prevalence rate of (38.5%). Diseased animals show sings of, sever conjunctival hyperemia, serious, mucoid and/or purulent ocular secretions, restless and anxiety, Presence of flies around the eyes, edematous eyes, Photophobia, Blepherospasim, rubbing eyes against hard objects, and corneal opacity. Results were also indicated different causative agents which were responsible for the disease, either in the form of single or mixed infection. Thelazia lacrymalis being the most important nematode detected, moreover Staphylococcus areus, E.coli, Klebseilla spp, Streptococous spp., and pseudomonas arigenosa, were indicated as the main and common bacteria which were isolated from infected eyes of diseased drought horses, Furthermore yeast, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were represent the fungal microorganisms isolated from infected eyes of diseased drought horses. Flies which found congregated around infected eyes were diagnosed as Musca spp.

MUMMIFICATION ART TECHNIQUE BY USING LARVAE OF SARCOPHAGA HEAMORRIODALIS FLY

Mushtaq A.M.Al-Helfi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 174-179

In this study is used larvae of sarcophaga heamorridalis fly which its characterized by large in length and gluttony in eat of carcasses, it stay for 7days at dead tissues until reach to pupa stage . Larvae were added to dead animals (pigeon , rabbit,hawk,fish,bird), after that it began feeding from first stage to third stage and it take good result that leave body without muscles, whereas skin and skeleton were kept

PATHOGENESIS OF INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS IN INFECTED BROILER CHICKENS

M.H. Mohammed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 180-188

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most common viral diseases of poultry. The objective of this study was to estimate the distribution of avian infectious bronchitis virus isolate in experimentally infected chicken. Twenty-one-day-old commercial broilers were divided randomly into two groups (fifty in the experimental and twenty in the control group). Chicks in the experimental group were inoculated intranasal with 106 ELD50/0.1 mL of the virus. The samples from different tissues were collected at day 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 postinoculation. Chickens showed mild respiratory signs and depression. Viral RNA was detected in the kidney, lung and tracheas. The most important clinical signs and virus finding appeared on day 1 pi. Data showed that the number of infected chickens and viral RNA detection from tissues was reduced with increasing antibody titer on day 20 pi. The results demonstrated that the IB virus has wide tissue distribution for respiratory, urogenital, and digestive systems.

PREPARATION OF VACCINE FOR DIABETIC FOOT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA USING LOW LEVEL DIODE LASER

Zainab Awad Radi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 189-196

Since the invention of laser in 1960, lasers have been developed and approved in many fields. Lasers can now be regarded as practical tools with unique properties that have been utilized effectively in several applications in fields of medical and biological sciences. six bacterial isolates were isolated from human samples of diabetic foot infections, which used for preparation of vaccines. The experiment was conducted on fifteen adult male rabbits, they were divided into three groups with 5 rabbits each. After irradiation of the bacterial suspensions with the diode laser for different exposure times and different frequencies, and the wavelengths used were (660, 820, 915 ) nm, the growth of bacterial isolates decreased until killed of bacteria at ( 40) min. The aim of the current study was to preparation of vaccines (live attenuated and killed) by irradiation of the bacteria by the low level diode laser. Wavelength (660) nm was more effective in killing the bacteria, and the variations were not significant between the live attenuated and the killed vaccine

DEVELOPMENT OF DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR TRANSFERRIN USING CHEMICAL MODIFICATION APPROACH

Athmar D. Habeeb

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 197-213

Proteins are very important molecules as therapeutics. They have several advantages over small molecule drugs but their use is limited by their circulation short half life, immunogenicity and physicochemical instability. Several approaches have been developed to improve the pharmacokinetics of proteins. One that is clinically proven is the covalent conjugation of poly ethylene glycol (PEG) to the protein. This is known as PEGylation. Problems associated with PEGylation include product heterogenicity and low conjugation efficiency. A new approach is applied in this study which is site-specific PEGylation and it is called disulfide bridging PEGylation. The main principle is to reduce a native disulfide bond in the protein molecule followed by PEGylation using a bis-alkylation PEG reagent that can insert a three carbon bridge that connects to the two sulphur that had formed the disulfide. In this study controlled reduction and disulfide bridging PEGylation of transferrin (which has 19 disulfides some that are close to the surface and are accessible) was conducted. For transferrin (Tf) partial reduction was achieved using (0.5 mM) DTT which is considered to be mild reducing conditions. No denaturant was required for the partial reduction of transferrin. Mono-PEGylation was achieved with a small amount of di-PEGylation being observed. Holo-Tf (which is Tf bound to iron) and apo-Tf (which is Tf iron free) were compared to see if bounded iron had any effect on protein conformation that could influence disulfide reduction or PEGylation. Both forms of Tf give the same results by Sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) indicating that iron had no effect. Using higher equivalents of the PEG reagent was unnecessary; we obtained good mono-PEGylation
198
by adding 2 equivalents of PEG to the protein. The results approved by Size exclusion chromatography –High performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC) analysis. These results demonstrate the possibility of controlled reduction of multiple disulfide proteins under mild conditions which may improve the stability, prolong the half life and improve pharmacokinetics of Tf to present it as medicine

TOXOLOGIC EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE

K.Majeed; Saleh

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 214-223

The aim of this study is to point out the dangers of accumulative intake of excessive amount of Nacl either by drinking water or ration which can lead to many pathological tissue changes of body organs.
Three groups of laboratory animals mostly male (3 mices for each group); distributed as high dose fed animals, Intermediate dose fed animals, and control group and this experiment continue for six months. Taken autopsy showed may gross changes characterized by regions of pale areas in liver with enlarged kidney, while microscopic findings appeared in several body organs; kidney, liver, heart, skeletal muscles, skin but were predominately in kidney which varied as being illustrated in figures with comments.

THE PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND THE EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TYPHA DOMINGENSIS PERS. FRUITE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ADULT MALE RABBITS

Arwa H.M.AL-Saeed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 224-228

This study was undertaken to find the phytochemical composition of Typha domingensis pers. Fruite and the effect of the methanolic extract on some biochemical parameters such as serum glucose , cholesterol , total protein , AST, ALT, and ALP enzymes in adult male rabbits after oral administration of different doses ( 500,1000,1500 mg/ Kg) daily for 30 days . Rabbits were divided into four groups 6 rabbits in each , group I animals received only 3 ml normal saline orally as control ,while groups(II ,III and IV) were orally administrated (500,1000,1500 mg/kg) of methanolic extract respectively .The result of the present study indicated that Typha domingensis pers. Fruite contains alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and saponins,. Significantly decreased (p< 0.05) was observed in serum level of glucose, AST, ALT and ALP while, no significant different (p>0.05) in serum level of cholesterol and total proteins were observed as compared with control group. This study concluded that methanolic extract of Typha domingensis pers. Fruite can act as anti-diabetic and hepatoprotective agent .
INTRODUCTION
The Typha

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION Escherichia Coli AND Klebsiella Pneumonia FROM TICKS Hyalomma SPP.KOCH, 1844FROM SHEEP IN BASRAH CITY

Mohanad .F.A.Al-Amura

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 229-238

The study was included isolation of ticks from ear, tail and udder of 60 sheep began from February to April (2012), The tick samples wereidentificationand assign to typeHyalomma sppdepended on diagnostic characters whichincluded: being festoons or none, legs appeared like banded andShape of spiracle like long coma in male,triangularshape in femalewith haslike tail inside at the end . Theblood were taken from its and were growing onMaConkeyand Eosin methylene blue agars,thebacterial colonies were growing inEosine methylene blue agarwas Escherichia coliwhich is appear as green metallic sheen, However thecoloniesonMaConkey agar wasopaque, pink in color and mucus in natural which refer tobacteria Klebseilla pneumonia, The number and percentage positiveof infectionby these bacteria was 8(13%) forEscherichia Coliand 3(5%) for Klebseilla pneumonia.

STUDY OF PATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN COLLIBASILOSIS OF MEDITERRANEAN SEAGULL ( Loras melonocephalus ) AT BASRAH PROVINCE

Majeed S. K

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 239-245

Hepatic granuloma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a granulomatous reaction. A total of ( 5 ) seagull birds were collected from different locales at Basrah city under this study with clinical signs anroxia and maciatiun.
The pathological sections showed many changes; presence of scattered granuloma in the parenchyma mostly midzonal and in periportal regions. Those granulomas consist of macrophages with central necrosis, some of those macrophages were with epithelial appearance or what is called epithelioid cells.
In conclusion the hepatic granulomas under this study suspected to be caused by infection with E. coli.

THE EFFECT OF MALATHION ON THE SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF ALBINO MICE

Hind A.Jalel

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 246-253

The present study designed for determining the effect of malathion on some blood parameters on male and female albino mice. The study was done on 42 mice divided in three groups,14mice per group 7per sex in each group. During two months, with (250mg/kg,500mg/kg) malathion doses there were clinical disorders such us salivation ,quaking, and diarrhea were observed in addition to significantly decreases (p<0.05) in R.B.C. count ,Hb. g/dI , P.C.V%. While lymphocytes will recorded significantly(p<0.05) increase and there were significant decreases in general weight during the period of treated mice in compared with control group.

DETECTION OF ENTEROTOXIN GENES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM RAW MILK .

Mohammed H. Khudor

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 254-264

A total of 200 samples of raw milk (100 cow milk and 100 buffaloe milk) were collected from different markets in Basrah city and were analyzed for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus . Results indicate that this bacterium was observed in 28.5% of total samples (30% of cow milk and 27% of buffalo milk) Enterotoxin genes (Sea-See) were investigated using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Staphylococcal enterotoxin C gene ( Sec ) was detected in 24.56% of the S. aureus isolates , while none of the S. aureus isolates harbouring Sea, Seb,Sed or See genes.

THE SERUM COPPER AND ZINC VALUES OF THE SHEEP GROWN UP IN THI_QAR VILLAGES

Jalel abed; Sheren Ali

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 265-269

he present study was planned to determine serum Micro mineral status (copper and zinc) of the sheep grown up in Thi_Qar villages .The serum copper &zinc values of the animals were analyzed .with atomic absorption spectrophotometer . The result showed there were non significant differences in all mean serum values of sheep except the mean serum values for animal which showed clinical sings were decrease significantly when compared with other animal which whereby not shown clinical sings .

TOXOLOGICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIAZINON ON MALE WILD PIGEON ( Culumba livia gaddi) IN BASRAH CITY

Majeed S. K

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 270-282

A five months as toxologic pathologic study of diazinon on male wild pigeons ( Culumba livia gaddi) by oral intubation was done. The animals divided to four groups each with six pigeons: A( high dose 0.6 mg), B( intermediate dose of 0.3 mg), C( low dose 0.15 mg) and D(untreated control). Clinical observation of treated pigeons did not show significant changes, but a clear histopathological changes were founded. In livers of group A showed a periportal foci of mononuclear cells, while, another showed a septal fibrosis and foci of mononuclear cells in the same group. A foci of mononuclear cells were shown in group B. In group C there was a periportal fibrosis, congestion and foci of mononuclear cells. A dilated cortical tubules were showed in kidney in all groups. While, in section from sciatic nerve related to groups (A-C) showed degenerated and vacuolated nerve fibers, and vacuolated nerve fibers were founded in group B and C. A several degenerate vacuolated nerve fibers were founded in the spinal cord of pigeons in A group, while, in B group a degenerate, vacuolated nerve fibers. In C group a several degenerate, vacuolated nerve fibers

STAINING TECHNIQUE FOR HELMINTH PARASITES BY USE RED BEET ( BETA VULGARIS L.) EXTRACT

Mohanad . F. A.Al-Amura

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 283-292

Experimentally red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) extract had been used to stain different types of parasites Lecithochirium acutum (Trematoda), Taenia spp.Dipylidium caninum and cysticercus cyst for Taenia spp. (Cestoda), Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara canis (Nematoda) and Neoechinorhynchus iraqensis (Acanthocephala). Stained helminthes were acquired a good pigmentation with distinction their internal structure, fish's Trematoda Lecithochirium acutum appear well –defined of its internal structure, the oral and ventral sucker, cirrus sac, uterus, testes, ovary and vitallaria were appeared pink in color. The whole of mature and gravid segments of Taenia spp. were acquired the yellow to brown colour in both cirrus sac and vas deference besides differentiation of eggs in gravid segment, Scolex of Taenia spp. get brown in color.in addition segment of Dipylidiun caninum acquired yellow colour. The cysticercus cyst was taken pink in color with distinguish of its hooks, while both Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis and Neoechinorhynchus iraqensis were appear pink to red in colour

USING SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR L.) AND PEAS (PISUM SATIVUM) AS REPLACEMENT FOR YELLOW CORN AND SOY BEAN AND THEIR EFFECTS ON GROWTH , HEMATOLOGY AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF BROILER CHICKS

Nawras A. Alwan

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 293-306

This work was done to investigate the effect of replacing the yellow corn (maize) with sorghum (white corn) and soy bean with peas on body weight, food intake, some hematological (PCV. And Hb) and also on some biochemical parameters (protein and urea). 72 one day old unsexed broiler chicks of average body weight 40-45 gm; they were divided into 3 equal groups of 24 chicks with 3 replicates. The first group were fed a diet containing sorghum ; the second group were fed a diet containing peas while third group fed normal diet. All groups fed on a starter diet for the first 28 days and then fed on growth diet till 49 days of age. Results showed significant increase in food intake, body weight in all experimental groups. Also significant increase were obtained in hematological parameters increased (Hb and PCV)as well as in serum biochemical parameters studied (P<0.05)for protein and urea in first and second groups compared to control group (Group 3).

ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMICAL STUDY ON OWS (CHRYSOMYA BEZZIANA)VILLENEUVE IN BASRAH PROVINCE SOUTH OF IRAQ

Mushtaq A.M Al-Helfi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 307-317

Study included Basrah provinces ( Fao, Abo-alkhaseib , Shatt –Al-arab, Alzubair , Deir ,Hartha,Alqurna,Almudaina,and center of Basrah)2004-2009.3453 cases ,(217 goats,80 dogs,40 baffalo,658cattle,2432 sheep, 15 horses,1 camel)were diagnosed with OWS. Lesions of myaisis were included ( cutaneous ,uterine, ear, eyes, oral cavity, udder and foot). Myaisis in dogs and buffalos with OWS because of ticks bites or FMD disease lesion. Suitable environment temperatures (30 C) (0 – 60 c). Although humidity (56%)( 22-90 %) as well as wind speed (5,25 m/Se)( 3,8-6,7 m/Se). This study improve that OWS survive in high temperatures ( 30 - 60 C) and low temperature (0 C)and infected all type in different types of animals with different cases of myiasis .Eradication of myaisis in last of that study be sure with use technique new method by vertical and horizontal spray of insecticides material with local treatment take good results healing in short time. No case detected from 2007-2009 with this technique

A STUDY ON THE PATHOLOGICAL AND DIAGNOSIS OF EIMERIA SPECIES INFECTION IN JAPANESE QUAIL

N.H. Mohammad

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 318-333

This study was conducted to detect the intestinal coccidial types in87Japanese quails (coturnix coturnix japonica)the birds were purchased from different parts of Nenevah governorate. The current study reveals that the total percentage of infection with Eimeria spp.oocysts 49.4%. Three species were diagnosed,according to their percentage they are:E.tsunodai 44.8%,E. uzura 34.5%,E. bateri 24.1%. The higher rates were in young birds. There was no significant difference with respect to sex. The results showed the higher infection rate and intensity was recorded in caecum infection with three species of Eimeria was most frequent in Japanese quails with percentage 46.5%. Macroscopical lesions of infected birds revealed thatsoftening of feces,thickening of mucosa and hemorrhagein caecum. Microscopically lesions characterized by sever hyperplasia of epithelial cell with construction of intestinal gland cavities in small intestine, caecum and presence of odema between muscle fibers with different development epithelial cells and infiltration with inflammatory cells. This study is regarded the first study in detection of species and pathological effect of Eimeriain Japanese quails in Nenevah governorate.

RADIOLOGICAL STUDY USING STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD AND CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TO TREAT ARTHRITIS IN RABBIT: COMPARATIVE STUDY.

Rafid Majeed Naeem Hussein

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 334-341

Fifteen rabbits were used in present study, all rabbits were infected with septic arthritis experimentally by injection Staphylococcus aurous (108 diluted) in knee joint. Animals were divided into three groups, 1st group which was treated with static magnatic field 350 gaus/daily; 2nd group was treated with penicillin- streptomycin (antibiotics) and dexamethazone (anti inflammatory drug) daily and 3rd group was control group which leaved without treatment. After seven days, 1st and 2nd groups were not different in radiographic image and there were no degenerative change in the articular surface of the joints, but in control group we found degenerative change in the aticular surface. In total white blood cell count of the synovial fluid, there were no significant change in 1st and 2nd group because of normal synovial fluid were founded in 1st and 2nd groups but in control the synovial fluid is turbid and containing high number of white blood cells. In conclusion both treatments (the magnetic field therapy and antibiotics and anti inflammatory treatment) were efficient and statically significant, so we can use the magnetic therapy as replacement to treat septic arthritis

PREVALENCE OF Q- FEVER IN SMALL RUMINANTS IN AL-QASSIM CITY

Qassim Haleem Kshash

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 342-348

The present study was carried out on 500 of small ruminants ( sheep and goats ) to determine the prevalence of Coxielosis in small ruminants in AL-Qassim city by using ELISA test .
The results showed 16% of small ruminants in AL-Qassim city were seropositive to coxiellosis . Infection in sheep ( 19.4% ) was higher than in goat (8% ) .The persent studywas concluded that coxiellosis did not affected by sex and age of examined animals.

COMPARATIVE MORPHOMETERIC STUDY OF SALT GLAND IN SOME DOMESTICATED AND WILD MARINE BIRDS

Maysoon A. Ahmad

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 349-354

The histological structure and statistical of the salt glands were investigated in some
domesticated and wild marine birds. Both species have a well-developed bilateral salt glands lie under the skin in the supraorbital depression of the frontal bone. The salt glands consist of many concentric polygonal lobes arranged in rows and separated by richly vascularized interlobular connective tissue. Each lobe is made up of branched secretory tubules lining with single layer of radialy arranged cuboidal cells from a central canal and meshed with connective tissue enriched of blood capillaries. The duct system of each lobe opens into the central canal that drain in a main duct leads to the anterior of the nasal cavity. The measurements of the epithelium heights in the domestic pekin duck were significantly lower than the other birds subjected in the present study

EFFECT OF NITRIC OXIDE DONOR SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDEON SPERM VOLUME OF DILUTED BULL SEMEN

Eman Rassol abd Alshaty

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 355-363

Study the effect of nitric oxide donor on sperms membrane integrity and volume and their relationship with viability and sperm motility. This study was done usingtwo groupseach one contained 10 samples first one exposed to eight different gradient of hypotonic solutions containing Sodium nitroprusside (SNP)and second 10 samples diluted with gradient hypotonic solutions without Sodium nitroprusside,Bull semen tris dilution treated with Sodium nitroprussidein that protected the sperm fromosmocellular changes stress. The results showed tolerance sperm to gradient hypotonic solution in sperm swelling and classic spermatocrit marked significance by the relative volume shift volumetric data. In addition the SNP had sperm protection to osmolarity tested and give improvement viability and sperm motility. Hypotonic media tonicity that may be attributed to direct liberation of Nitric oxide that produced vital regulation of Na-K ATPase and Calcium channels of sperm membrane