Volume 13, Issue 1, Spring 2014, Page 1-323


ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOID COMPOUND ISOLATED FROM INULA GREAVEOLENS L. PLANT ON SELECTED PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

Ghosoon F. Al-Kanany; Sameerah Ahmed Zearah

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

The antibacterial activity of the flavonoid compound (B3) isolated from Inula greaveolens plant by column – chromatography was determined against several of clinical microbial isolates including Gram positive: ( Streptococcus spp. Staphylococcus aureus ) and isolates of Gram negative : ( Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Esherichia coli ) by using three concentrations of the extract (125 mg /ml , 250mg /ml ,500 mg /ml ).The results revealed that the falvonoid compound B3 has varying degrees of inhibition tested microorganisms.
The cytotoxic activity of the falvonoid compound (B3) was determined against the fresh human red blood celles with several concentrations of the extract and the results shown that flavonoid compound did not had toxicity against the human red blood cells.

CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MAMMARY TUMORS IN FOREIGN DOGS BREEDS IN KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ.

B. I.Al-mufty; M.A. Abdullah; M. I. Yasin; N.J. Hassan

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 11-19

Mammary tumors in five intact bitches were evaluated at the Department of Medical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Duhok University. Information about the breed and age of the animals, location and number of affected mammary glands, surgical outcome, tumor recurrence and survival were recorded. All the removed tumors were histologically examined and diagnosed as malignant types.

ACTIVATION OF EPIDIDYMALS SPERM ,OOCYTES MATURATION AND EMBRYOS PRODUCTION IN VITRO IN ARABI SHEEP OF DIFFERENT AGE

Khalaf.A.R.Hasan Al-rishdy

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 20-25

The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics / College of Agriculture / University of Basra , from 1/5/2013 to 18/12/2013. The aim was to study the possibility of fertilization of Oocytes in vitro by sperm withdrawn from the epididymis . Reproductive tracts were brought from Basra slaughter house with a total of 410 samples. Withdrawing the sperm from the epididymis and oocytes from small follicles (less than 4 mm) and from large (more than or equal to 4 mm) .Rams aged (1.2 -2) years showed significant superiority (P <0.01) in sperm individual motility and live sperms in comparison with older ones . In vitro fertilization by using semen of ( 1.2 – 2) years rams and an oocyte of greater than or equal to 4 mm was superiorly significant (P <0.01) and showed a division into two or more cells.

EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC EXTRACT FROM PUNICA GRANATUM L.PEEL

Alya; Ban Kadhum Yussif; a Sebti Jasim; Layla Adnan A.Gabar; Alaa Tariq Abdul wahid

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 26-32

ABSTRACT
Invegstigation of antibacterial activity of phenolic extract of Punica granatum Peel was carried out in this study on Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria. The results exhibited variable susceptibilities of microorganisms for different concentration of phenolic extract. The activity of this extract was associated with high concentrations. Using plate method, phenolic extract of P.granatum had the highest effect and wide diameter of growth inhibition zone against Streptococcus sp.,and it has no effect on growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Staphylococcus aureus only when very high concentration is used.

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS BACTERIA FROM FISH OF FRESH WATER AND ITS ANTIBIOTICS SENSITIVITY IN MOSUL CITY

Haifaa Hussein Ali

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 33-42

Bacteriological examination was performed on 60 local healthy fish of fresh water include 30 Carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) and 30 Cat fish (Silurus glanis) with different weights from local retail fish markets at Mosul city, during the period from sept. 2011 - Sept. 2012. Swabs from skin and parts of muscles, livers, intestines incubated in brain heart infusion broth for 24 hours at 37 ̊ C (aerobic culture), a loopful from incubated broth were streaked on blood agar, milk agar, mannitol salt agar incubated plates at 37 ̊ C for 24 h, selected colonies were submitted to gram staining, morphological characteristics biochemical tests for Staphylococcus. The percentage of Staphylococcus isolation was 100% for all examined samples of fish. A total of 130 isolates from both two species of examined fish (62) isolates from Cyprinus carpio and (68) isolates from Silurus glanis , a five species of Staphylococcus S. saprophyticus (29% , 29.4%), S. epidermidis (21% , 22%), S. hyicus (17.75% , 17.7%), S. aureus (17.75% , 19.1), S. intermedius (14.5% , 11.8%) , were identified with different numbers and percentages for Cyprinus carpio and Silurus glanis respectively . While percentages of Staphylococcus isolates from skins (35.5% , 36.8%), muscles (17.7% , 20.6%), livers (25.8% , 25%), intestines (21% , 17.60%) from both species Cyprinus carpio and Silurus glanis respectively. Antibiotic sensitivity test result for six antibiotics (Ampicillin, Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, Polymaxin, CO-Trimaxazol , Ciprofloxacin) were variable most species of Staphylococcus isolates were resistant to Ampicillin but sensitive to Ciprofloxacin.

ANATOMICAL DESCRIPTION OF ORBITAL REGION IN ONE HUMPED CAMEL (camelusdramadarius )

Masarat .S.Almayahi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 43-49

This work is important for the demonstration the orbital region as far as the fine anatomical description site of view which have a great important for veterinarian surgeon who work s in the field of eye surgery.
In this study we use six skulls of adult camels ofeachsex and by mean of fine topographical and gross anatomical description of the orbital bone and foraminae, they revealed that, the supraorbital foramina was absent at the skull of one humped camel, with the presence of super facial fissure which engaged with semi foramina for transmission of supra orbital nerve.

SEX DETERMINATION OF FETUS PRENATAL FROM MATERNAL PLASMA BY USING DUPLEX PCR TECHNIQUE IN GOAT

NisreenYasirJasim; Tahir A. Fahid; Talib Ahmed Jaayid

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 50-59

The present study included determinationof fetal sex prenatal by analyzing free fetal DNA cells in maternal plasma by using dupplex PCR . At the first amplifying the DNA which extracted from male and non-pregnant female goat plasma which used as control to confirm the accuracy of this technique. After thatblood were collected from 5 pregnant females goat prepared the plasma and extract the DNA by using heat-based direct method for plasma and then investigate the sequences GAPDH and DYS14 through the use of dupplex polymerase chain reaction technique and the results were 2 (40%) males show a double bands one at 97 bp representing GAPDH and the second at 198 bp representing DYS14 and 3 (60%) females show a single band at 97 bp representing GAPDH. This technique of sexing is applied for the first time on animals especially in Iraq.

THE EFFECT OF GENISTEIN ON SOME PRODUCTIVE AND BIOCHEMICAL BLOOD TRAITS OF QUAIL ( Coturnix coturnix japonica )

Majed H. AL-Asadi; Waleed Y. Kasim; Sajida A. Alshaheen

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 60-69

This study was conducted at commercial poultry farm in Aboalkassib from 9/3/2013 to 9/5/2013. A total of 60 day old quail chicks were randomly distributed to four groups , 15 birds for each treatments. Treatments were (1): control group , (2) : 100 ml genistein per 1 litter of drinking water, (3): 100 ml genistein plus 10 ml vitamin E per 1 litter of drinking water , and (4): 150 ml genistein plus 10 ml vitamin E per 1 litter of drinking water . T3 caused significantly (P<0.05) increase in PCV and Hb during two periods of the experiment, and in the cholesterol concentration during (0-30) days of age . Whereas, T3 and T4 caused significantly (P<0.05) increase in the cholesterol during (0-60) days of age . Glucose also increased significantly (P<0.05) in T4 during (0-30) days of age and in T2 during (0-60) days of the of the experiment. T2 resulted in increase in estrogen concentration significantly (P<0.05) during 0-30 days of the experiment.

MAGNESIUM SULFATE, KETOROLAC, PROPOFOL, KETAMINE, AND XYLAZINE ANESTHETIC PROTOCOL IN RABBITS

Ahmed A. AL- Mramudhi; haier A. Abid

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 70-81

The study aimed to evaluate the combination of Magnesium sulfate (Mg), ketorolac (Kr), Propofol (P), Ketamine (K), and Xylazine(X) anesthetic protocol in anesthesia and analgesia of rabbits. Twenty healthy male rabbits, weighing (1.300 0.200 kg) were used in the study. All rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups of five rabbits injected with the different protocols (G1(p10k50mg50 ), G2(p10k50kr10 ), G3(p10 k50 kr10mg50 ), and G4(p10 k50 kr10mg50x5)) of anesthesia intravenously in the marginal ear vein. The heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) were taken before giving the drugs (Time 0 (control reading)), and then after 5,10,15,20,30,45,60,and 75 minutes of giving anesthesia. The induction time, duration of anesthesia, degree of analgesia, muscle relaxation and recovery time were recorded also.
The anesthetic protocol in G3 (p10 k50 kr10mg50) is seen suitable for short operations (gives 24.2 minutes of surgical anesthesia), and the anesthetic protocol in G4 (p10 k50 kr10mg50x5) is seen suitable for long operations (gives 43.5 minutes of surgical anesthesia), and no signs of pain with the intravenously injection of propofol.

THE SULFONAMIDE EXPOSURE AND THE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS OF DOMESTIC PIGEON

Essa Isra; Al-Sereah Bahaa. A; Majeed Saleh. K; a. M

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 82-93

A two months Toxicologicl pathology study of sulfonamide in domestic pigeons by oral intubation were done. The study was done at two dosage levels as intermediate 40mg/kg and high 80mg/kg with untreated control as third group. Clinical observation of treated birds did not show significant changes only the birds appeared to be quite after dosing for short time. Grossly, no obvious changes could be detected. Microscopically, Showed histopathological changes in pigeons represent of nephrotoxic effects characterized by degenerate and/or dilated cortical tubules in intermediate while, high dose groups appeared glomerular atrophy some with dilated Bowmans space, the severity of the changes were higher in the high dose group. In liver, peri portal and septal fibrosis in treated groups, some with parenchymal foci of inflammatory cell and vaculation of hepatocytes, while in pancreas, there was degenerate vacuolated islets of Langerhans in both treated groups, also in brain vacuolation of neurons and vacuoltion of nerve fiber in white matter of spinal cord. The severity of all above changes were higher in high dose than intermediate dose. Finally , the present study showed that domestic pigeons can tolerate varying toxic levels of sulfonamide with no mortality.

THE IMMUNOLOGICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF Syzium aromatic EXTRACT ON BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM TEETH

Hanaa K. Ibrahem; Rana A.Faaz

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 94-107

Seventy five samples were collected from human teeth of ages about (25-65)years from both sex . Several type of bacteria were diagnosed namely Staphylococcus .aurous (33.33%), E. coli (13.33%) , and Staphylococcus epidermis (22.66%) . Syzygium aromaticum crud extract were used as two type grinding and non-grinding .The minimum concentration of grinding type was( 0.6-2.6) mg/ml and the minimum concentration of non-grinding type was (0.533-2.1) mg/ml that inhibit bacterial growth of S .aurous and E. coli. Antibiotic sensitivity test was applied using discs diffusion method , the sensitivity was (92%) for Staph. aurous toward Kanamycin (K), and (80%) for E.coli toward Ciprofloxacin(Cip).The results showed that the resistance of Staph. aurous was 18(72)% toward Metromidazol(MET) , 22(88)% toward Bacitracin (B), E. coli was 8(80%) toward Streptomycin(S). The phagocytosis test or phagocytosis activity also included in this study.

INCIDENCE OF ILLEGAL SUBSTITUTION OF BEEF WITH INFERIOR-QUALITY ANIMAL SPECIES MEATS SOLD IN KERBALA

Bahaa H.Muhammed; Hikmat Sahib Al-Nassir; Raeed A.Kassim

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 108-115

A surveillance study was conducted to determine the rates of mixing beef illegally with other selected animal species meats of inferior quality in Kerbala Governorate. Over an 8-month period ( September 2012 to May 2013), a total of 120 samples of meat products viz., 40 local minced meats, 40 local beef burger and 40 imported beef burger were purchased from Kerbala city and analyzed by Agar Gel Immuno-Diffusion test ( AGID) for detecting substitution of undesirable meat species. Meat extracts from camel, chicken and donkey were prepared. Rabbits were injected with meat extracts for preparation of hyper-immune sera, whereas, blood was collected to get the specific anti-sera. Positive result was recorded when precipitation line observed between the antibody and the corresponding meat extract. The incidence of adulteration was detected in 6 (5%) samples with camel meat and 23 ( 19.16%) samples with chicken meat, while none of the samples was found adulterated with donkey meat .Camel meat found in 4 (10%), 2 ( 5%) and 0 ( 0%) of local minced meat, local beef burger and imported beef burger respectively. However, chicken meat detected in 8 (20%), 10 (25%) and 5 ( 12.5%) of local minced meat, local beef burger and imported beef burger respectively.
It was concluded that substitution of meat products, in which inferior quality meat is mixed into beef, has been existed in Kerbala G

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DOSE OF CYPERMTHRIN ON SERUM ACETYLCHOLINE CONCENTRATION, SPINAL CORD AND SCIATIC NERVE HISTOPATHOLOGY IN ADULT RATS.

Saleh Kadem Majeed; Talal Jabal Hussein; Zainab Waheed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 116-124

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different doses of of Cypermthrin on serum acetylcholine concentration , Spinal cord and Sciatic nerve histopathology in adult rats. Fourty eight adult rats were used , they divided randomly and equally into four groups . Control group orally dosed with normal saline for 90 days . The other three groups were dosed orally with different three doses of cypermthrin , high dose ( 64 mg / kg b.w. ) intermediate dose ( 32 mg / kg b.w. ) and low dose ( 16mg / kg b.w. ). The results shows that serum acetylecholine concentrations increased significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) in rats exposed to high and intermediate dose of cypermethrine compared with control group. Whereas there were no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) between low dose of cypermethrine and contol group . Hitopathological examination of spinal cord and Sciatic nerve revealed that there were a dose dependent increase in vaccuolation in nerves fibers to be affect larg number of nerve fiber in high dose and it affect few numbers of nerve fibers in low dose. In conclusion cypermthrin affected positively histopathological findinds of nerves fibers .

EVALUATION OF SOME MINERAL IN SHEEP IN BASRA

Israa abdul wadood; Bahjah ghassan

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 125-137

The present study was conducted in Basra province to evaluate of some minerals (copper,, zinc and cobalt) in sheep. The study constituent examination of 1400 sheep and 200 of it showed sings of mineral deficiency and 25 as a control, the study include: clinical, hematological examination, and level of serum(copper, zinc, and cobalt).
A number of 200 (14.2%) sheep revealed a clinical signs of mineral deficiency from total of (1400) sheep which were clinically examined in this study, And the study showed that the values of copper, zinc, and cobalt in serum were significantly low (0.15±0.03ppm, 0.73±0.35ppm, 0.57±0.12ppm). and the most important clinical signs presented by alopecia (47.5 %), parakiratosis (18%), diarrhea (11.5%), pale mucous membrane (49%), lacrimation (6%), ataxia (4%).
Also the study reveal that the body temperature within normal (39.47±0.33 C°), but increase of pulse rate, and respiratory rate in affected animals were (90.48± 4.53Min, 33.99±0.29 Min) respectively.
And the study showed that the RBCc of affected sheep significantly low (6.57±0.10 *106/ml), also the PCV, Hb, MCV, MCH, were significantly low (19.75±0.24 %, 6.88±0.11 g/L, 31.07±0.49 fl, 11.06±0.53 pg) respectively, whereas MCHC in affected sheep was significantly high (34.92±0.45 %) and the mean of WBCc of affected sheep were(6.43±0.11103/ml) and there is no significant different when compared with control.

TOXICOLOGICAL PATHOLOGY OF NAPROXEN (NSAIDS) ON GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT IN WHITE RATS

Thaer Ali; Zainab W. Khudair; Saleh K. Majeed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 138-149

The current study was accomplished to investigate the toxicity of naproxen sodium (NAP) in white rats, and then to detect the pathogenesis of NSAIDs-induced gastro-intestinal injury. The study included the usage of main effective(naproxen) on (48) male and female white rats, They were divided into four groups, and each group contained(12) rats, divided as follows. group-C, which treated with normal saline, group(L) was low dose which received (5mg/kg) of naproxen sodium, group(I) was given intermediate dose ,which received (10mg/kg) and group(H) represented high dose, which received (20mg/kg). The drug administrated by oral gavage for three months. Results of the study included the macroscopic changes such as minimal changes of the gastric mucosa or lining epithelium in the wall of stomach, also included ulceration of the small intestine, in addition there was increase length of the villi and presence of inflammatory cells in lamina properia, and also there was degeneration of mucosal epithelium and mucosal glands in the lamina propria of the stomach, There was vacuolation of mucous lining cells of the stomach, and there was inflammatory cells in the serosa, presence of prominant ganglionic cells in the distal part of muscularis externa of the stomach. The pathological changes of high dose of naproxen was more severe than intermediate dose(group-I) and low dose(group- L).

ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF NEW DAPSONE SCHIFF BASE DERIVATIVE IN LABORATORY RATS

Wasfi A. Al-masoudi; Hassan T. hamed; Jalaa Al- ahamed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 150-156

Dapsone (4,4-diaminodiphenylsulphon) is one of the types of sulfa drugs as an anti bacterial and is used particularly in the treatment of leprosy . The aim of present study to investigate in vivo toxic effect and find acute toxic doses ( LD50) of new dapsone Schiff base derivative compound ( 4-{[ 4(ethylideneamino)phenyl] sulfonyl} aniline, was evaluated in this study. The experiment was performed on 10-14-week old male and female albino rats ( 225± 25 g ) at the time of treatment. Its acute toxic dose being 0.58 g.

CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA IN OUTBREAK OF RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION OF SHEEP AND GOATS IN BASRAH PROVINCE

Hanaa K. Ibraheim; Rasha M. Othman; Moaed H. Sayhood

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 157-165

One hundred eight nasal swabs and blood samples from respiratory tract infected animals 66 from sheep and 52 from goats were collected from different sites of Basrah province during a period from December 2012 to April 2013 for isolation and identification of the Pasteurella multocida according to PCR assay . Nasal swabs and blood samples were directly cultured on proper media, then five colonies from the agar plate of suspected P. multocida cultures were used for extracted DNA and, further used for Polymerase chain reaction PCR . PCR was carried out for amplified the PMOut gene on the previously extracted P. multocida DNA . The best amplification of PMOut gene was observed at 45°C annealing temperature . Under these optimal conditions, the expected fragment of 219bp of PMOut gene was successfully amplified. On the other hand , the distinct amplification with a molecular length of 219bp was obtained in 56 positive PCR samples (37 from sheep with distribution rate 56% and 19 from goats with distribution rate 36.5% ). The PCR results of the PMOut gene was found to be potentially a useful method for identification of P. multocida infections.

STUDY THE EFFECT OF USING PROBIOTIC (VETLACTOFLORUM) ON SOME OF BIOCHEMICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF BROILER CHICKENS

E.A; Kapitonova; Glaskovich; A.A; Aamer R.A; Alaqaby; Losev

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 166-179

In the present study its used liquid preparation of probiotics "Vetlactoflorum-M" (dissolved in diluted milk) and "Vetlactoflorum-C" (dissolved in whey), and were studied its effect on some parameters such as total protein, globulin, albumin also serum bactericidal and lysozyme activity.
One hundred fifty broilers chicken breed "Ross-308" used in one day old. They were divided into three groups of 50 chicks (control" un-supplemented with probiotic" , first treatment group received “Vetlactoflorum-C” and second treatment group received “Vetlactoflorum-M”). Blood samples were taken in 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 day-old. Laboratorial analyses were conducted in Vitebsk state academy of veterinary medicine in Belarus. Level of total protein in the 2nd group to the end of the study was higher than in control group to 8.1% (P <0.05) in the third group by 3.96% (P <0.01). During observation period in chicken’s serum of supplemented probiotic groups, albumin concentration was higher relative to the control group. Similar results were observed in level of globulins. In day 42 of broilers chicken, globulin content in both treatment groups compared with the control group as higher by 2.97% (P<0.01) and 5.19% (P <0.05), respectively. The level of serum bactericidal activity in 42 day of 2nd group was higher than the control at 23.62% (P <0.01), and in the third group by 16.21% (P> 0, 05). The index of serum lysozymal activity also surpassed control group in chickens in group 2 by 11.96% (P> 0.05), and in the third group at 10.69% (P> 0.05).

MOLECULAR AND SEROLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS SEROTYPES IN CATTLE OF BASRAH PROVINCE

Zainab M. Salem; Adnan M. Al-Rodhan

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 180-197

This study was conducted on serum from 6 different regions covering all parts of the Basrah province during the period from October 2012 to June 2013 in order to determine the prevalence of foot and mouth disease in bovine species. From the serology results, the overall prevalence of this disease was(72.7%.) . Of the 165 samples subjected to Nonstructural protein (NSP) enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening test, 120 were interpreted as positive representing (72.7%.) while the other 45 samples were negative representing 27.3%. The seropositivity significantly associated with age groups (p<0.01) and sex (P < 0.05).
RT-PCR base detection of FMDV for primary and serotype specific diagnosis was used. Different types of clinically positive samples of FMD were collected from the cattle which includes samples from mouth vesicles, serum and saliva .RT-PCR based identification was done with( universal primer sets 1F / 1R, A- 1C562, O-1C272 and As1-1C505) with expected band of( 328, 866, 639 and 911 bps.respectively) . Of eighty three samples collected, only 68(81.9%) were successfully amplified by RT-PCR, and of these, only 19(22.9%) samples were found to be serotype A-1C562 positive and 26(31.3%) were serotype O-1C272 positive and nil for serotype As1-1C505. The frequency of foot-and-mouth disease viral genome presence in cattle had no significant differences based on sex (P>0.05) while the difference among age groups was significant (P < 0.05)

THE HISTOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PURE FLAX SEED LIGNIN ON THE MAMMARY GLAND IN FEMAL RABBITS

Sinaa Jaboori Al-Bazii; Wefak Jaboori Al-Bazii

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 198-210

This study was carried out to investigate the effect that result from taking 40 mg /kg BW of purified lignan from the seed of flax Linum usitatissimum L. in the growth and development of mammary glands during virgin , pregnancy and lactating stages for 14 days. Thirty (30) rabbits were used in this experiment divided into six groups, two groups at maturity (virgin) stage, two groups at pregnancy stages and two groups at lactating stages (5 rabbitseach group). The following studies were decided: histological, histochemical, biochemical and hormonal studies for each group. Microscopic examination of mammary gland in the virgin rabbits that treated with pure flax lignan showed more growth in the size of lobules and alveoli. In pregnant, the treated groups showed more branching of alveoli with more flattened epithelium. In lactating treated group showed the lobules were expanded and contained more branching alveoli with discontinuous flattened epithelium. The PAS staining reaction of histological sections of mammary gland from treated groups and control were showed positive reactions in all groups.
The biochemical studies showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the serum reduced glutathione concentration with decrease in the malondialdehyde concentration in the three stages that treated with pure flax lignan compared with control. The hormonal study indicated a noticeable increase in prolactin hormones with significant decreased in estrogen in all groups of treated animals for the three physiological stages (virgin, pregnant and lactating) compared with their controls.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THALLIUM SULFATE TOXICITY ON KIDNEYS OF WHITE LABORATORY RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)

Zainab .W .khudair; Saleh. K.Majeed; Mazin .A. Chayan

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 211-221

In this study 48 rats were used and divided into four groups :- A,B,C and D each group contains 12 rats . All these groups were administrated orally with aqueous solution of thallium sulfate as 0.4 mg/kg b.w. , 0.8 mg/kg b.w. , 1.6 mg/kg b.w. respectively while the control group(A) was administrated with normal saline . This experiment was continued for 90 days . After this period all animals were anesthetized with chloroform by inhalation and sacrificed to collect blood samples for obtaining the serum which used for estimation of serum urea and creatinine , and to study histopathological changes caused by thallium sulfate toxicity on kidney tissue . Compared with control group, all treated groups showed markedly dose –dependent elevation in serum urea and creatinine, and pathological changes as dilatation and vacoulation of cortical tubules and atrophy of glomeruli and also necrosis of proximal convoluted tubules in high dose group .

IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT OF CURCUMA LONGA IN MICE

Abeer L. Mohammed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 222-234

This study was designed to find out the effect of oral inoculation of aqueous extract of Curcuma Longa at two doses (1 and 5) mg/ kg body weight daily for 4 weeks on the immune response of Balb/c mice by estimating of serum concentration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) , interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon gamma (INF-γ) using ELISA test. The present results revealed that significant increase (p<0.05) in the values of both of IL-2 (133.80 pg/ml and 181.60 pg/ml, respectively) and INF-γ concentration (789.50 pg/ml and 1131.50 pg/ml, respectively) in sera of both mice groups treated with two concentration of Curcuma longa 1and 5 mg/kg body weight, respectively in comparison with control group. On the other hand significant elevation of IL-4 (91.00 pg/ml and 64.40 pg/ml, respectively) and IL-10 concentration (50.10 pg/ml and 42.70 pg/ml, respectively) in sera of both mice groups treated with Curcuma longa 1 and 5 mg/kg body weight in comparison with control group. IL-2 and INF-γ were used for detection of TH1 response, while IL-4 and IL-10 used for TH2 response detection. However, both mice groups treated with Curcuma longa (1 and 5 mg/kg) showed increase in the activity of TH1 in comparison with TH2. The ratio of IL-2/IL-10 (4.253) for mice group treated with 5 mg/kg body weight Curcuma longa, and INF-γ/IL-4 (17.659), and these rates were higher than the ratio of IL T 2/IL-10 (2.671) and INF-γ/IL-4 (8.676) for mice group treated with 1 mg/kg body weight

ISOLATION OF Staphylococcus aureus FROM BUFFALO MILK IN BASRA GOVERNORATE AND DETECTION OF THEIR ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY

Israa T. Anad; Basil A. Abbas; Bassam Y . Khudaier

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 235-245

This study was conducted on 215 milk samples collected from apparently healthy lactating buffalo during the period from August 2012 to March 2013. Isolation and identification of bacterial isolates were carried on the basis of their morphology, staining, cultural and biochemical properties. Antibiotics susceptibility of the isolated organisms were also done . Out of 215 milk samples examined 22 isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus . Results of antibiotics sensitivity in this investigation showed that Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to kanamycin , azithromycin , gentamycin , vancomycin , nitrofurantoin , streptomycin and resistant to oxacillin and ampicillin.

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SALMONELLA SPP. FROM POULTRY FARMS BY USING DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES AND EVALUATION OF THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITIES

Ali A. AL-Iedani; Nael M. Oufi; Mohammed H. Khudor

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 246-259

This study aimed to isolate and identify Salmonella spp. from various sources of poultry farms by using four different techniques (conventional biochemical tests, API 20E system, serology and polymerase chain reaction) the total number of isolates was 44(9%). The Salmonellae including 4 species, S. gallinarum 9(1.85%), S. typhimurium 7(1.44%), S. newport 21(4.3%) and S. ohio 1(0.21%). The highest isolation rate was in first week of chicks life 18(25.7%), however, the highest isolation rate of salmonella was from liver 13(28.8%). There are similarity in identification rate of Salmonella spp. between API 20 E system and PCR assay using flic gene. In this study using PCR amplification of rfbsg and rfbsp genes in differentiation of Salmonella serovar gallinarum into S. gallinarum and S. pullorum biovars very useful. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility revealed high resistance of isolates against seven antibiotics arranged in descending from high to low resistance (Azithromycin, Florfenicol, Trimethoprime-sulphamethaxezole, Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Ampicillin and Gentamycin).

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HLA-DRB1*0103 AND HLA-DQA1*0201 GENOTYPES AND SPECIFIC IGE RESPONSES TO UNRELATED ALLERGENS IN ATOPIC PATIENTS

Fawziah A. Abdulla; Falih H.Mezban

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 260-273

Because of the pivotal role of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules in regulating the immune response and their extensive polymorphism, it is not surprising that particular HLA class II alleles have been implicated in susceptibility to allergic diseases and in restriction of the IgE responses to a variety of allergens. We investigated the relationship between HLA-DRB1*0103 and HLA- DQA1*0201 genotypes and allergies to amoxicillin(AX) and love bird (LB) and explored their restriction of IgE responses to these allergens.
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay test (ELISA) was used to examine the specific IgE antibodies in the sera of 175 subjects including 145 atopic patients and 30 healthy individuals without any allergic reaction. All of them were chosen for HLA genotyping by polymerase chain reaction . Compared with seropositive all control and seronegative individuals showed negative PCR HLA genotyping results.The higher overall rate (39.4%) of PCR positivity was observed inseropositive patients with positive PCR HLA-DQA1*0201 genotyping results .Also PCR HLA-DQA1*0201 genotyping revealed the higher rates of the PCR positivity in the males and females of the second age group in comparison with those of the first age groups but without significant difference (P > 0.05). The same result was also observed in positive PCR result for the patients with HLA-DRB1*0103 and those with both HLA -DRB1*0103 and HLA-DQA1*0201 as the non-significant higher PCR positive rates was observed in the males and females of the 2ndage groups.Also the females of the second age group showed the higher PCR positivity rates (100%,50% and30%)for HLA-DQA1*0201 and HLA-DRB1*0103) and both respectively
ELISA results revealed that the overall rate of seropositivity in tested individuals to amoxicillin(AX) or love bird dropping extract (LBDE) allergens was 54.9% .The females were not significantly different (P ≥ 0.05) from males and they showed the higher rate of seropositivity against AX(57.9%)and LBDE(58.9%)allergens.In contrast there was no significant effect(P > 0.05)for the age on the seropositivity against LBDE and the patients of the 1st age group showed higher rate (55.9%) of seropositivity in comparison with rate (43.7%) of 2ndage group patients

THE LAST POSITION OF OLD WORLD SCREW WORM IN IRAQ

Muntasir Al-Ani; Khawla bedan Al-Jassim; Mushtaq Al-Helfi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 274-283

Fourteen years of study from September 1996 to September 2010 included all province of Iraq. This study showed behavior and outbreak of old world screw worm from first recoded in Iraq with signal to its epidemiology. Investigation show proliferation and spread of fly in areas and the ways of reach this fly to in. many cases recorded at 60c and zeroC.erradication study where occur by using new method of spraying chemical pesticides and used ivermectin as injection s/c for animals as prevention. This technique improved that no cases were recorded in all town of Iraq especially in Basra which have big problem of infestation of old world screw worm in animals at 2004-2005. Study improve that were good professional staff of veterinarian in Iraq can eradication old world screw worm without using of sterile male fly technique of chrysomya bezziana.

PREVALENCE OF BRAIN LESIONS IN SHEEP SLAUGHTERED AT MOSUL AREA DURING 2012-2013.

TH.Y. Alhbiti; M.D. kako

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 284-302

The present study revealed the prevalence and pathology of sheep brain(male and female). One handred brain samples were obtained randomly from Mosul animal slaughter house and butcher shops since October 2012 to August 2013 from animals with and without nervous signs. The main gross lesions were edema which accounted 53% of the cases, congestion 51% , hemorrhage 20% and 3% cyst of coenurous cerebralis. The major lesions were observed by histopathological examination of three different areas of the brain (cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata)in each case. Lesions include vascular change, neuronal degeneration, necrosis, inflammatory change, gliosis, neuronophagia, amyloid deposition. Three cases revealed the presence of the coenurous cerebralis and two cases were abscesses and one case showed the presence of Sarcocystis SPP.

TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SELENIUM ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN MALE RATS (RUTTUS RUTTUS)

Nabeel Mahdi abed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 303-311

This study was conducted to detect the effects of Selenium on some physiological and reproductive parameters in rats male, Twenty-four mature male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups; each group consists of eight males. First group was injected intrapretonially with 0.1 ml of normal saline for 30 consecutive days as control group, while second and third groups were intrapritonially injected with 0.1 ml of sodium Selenite at concentration (2,4 mg/kg body Wight ) of selenium for 30 days. The hematological and biochemical parameters including, red blood cells count(R.B.C), white blood cells count(W.B.C), hemoglobin concentration(Hb), package cell volume (P.C.V) , in addition to ALT and AST were performed after animals elimination . The concentration and percentage of normal and abnormal sperms were calculated after epididymis extraction. Statistical analysis reveals that significant differences (p≤0.05) in Red blood cells count, package cell volume, while WBCs count and liver enzymes ALT,AST show increase significant differences (p≤0.05) in comparison with control group . In concern with reproductive parameters, this study indicates there is significant differences in motility and activity of sperms of treated males, in comparison with control group

STUDY THE PATHOGENICITY OF PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA IN MICE

Al-Gebouri N.M; Al-Maaly N.M; Waffa A. Ahmed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 312-323

All Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) strains of Pasteurella multocida, fell into Roberts type I, P. multocida Roberts I: Carter B, the serotype is responsible for Asian HS. This study conducted to evaluate the validity of the mouse as model for HS in cattle, buffaloes, goats. A total of thirty six Swiss mice of both sexes divided into two main groups (infective and control) and each group subdivided into three groups (1st, 2nd, 3rd), each group subdivided into 2 subgroups (A, B). Each infective subgroups infected with different route (I.P and S.C) and different dose of the (Robert I :carter group B) strain as 104 cfu, 102 cfu and 50 cfu respectively for both routes. Many criteria (clinical sings, mortality, bacterial isolation from different organs, and gross pathological changes ) were used to describe infection in mice as a tool for further investigation in some large animals. The study showed that mice displayed fever, depression, anorexia, and other clinical signs 24hrs. before death which occurred between 24-72 hrs.
P. multocida: Robert I: carter : B was isolated from most organs of 1st and 2nd group infected with (104 and 102 cfu) but not isolated from the brain of third group infected with 50 cfu (I.P and S.C ) also from kidney and lung of S.C B3 of the infected mice, and from all organs of the third mouse of this subgroup.
Mice showed different gross pathological changes of internal organs and brain , these characterized by splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, petechial haemorrhage similar to that observed in cattle, buffaloes.
These results suggest that the mouse would seem to provide an ideal tool to study HS in cattle, buffalo.