Volume 15, Issue 2, Autumn 2016, Page 1-385


DIRECT DETECTION OF Clostridium perfringens BASED ALPHA TOXIN GENE FROM SHEEP AND CATTLE BY REAL TIME PCR TECHIQUE

Jenan N. Sadeq; Jameela R.Esmaeel; Balsam M. Mizher

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 1-9

Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used for detection of Clostridium perfringens toxins genes alpha (cpa )directly from the fecal samples of cattle and sheep.Fecal samples from 20 clinically healthy cattle and 20 clinically healthy sheep were collected randomly from different farms located in AL-Diwanyia city ,All the strains of Clostridium perfringens were analyzed by Real-Time PCR using specific primers for alpha (cpa)toxin genes ,its reveald that (cpa)toxin gene of Clostridium perfringens ,were detected in cattles in 8(40%) and 14 (70%) in sheep Real time positive respectively samples ,This results indicate that Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin producing strains were prevalent in sheep and cattles and its possibly play an important role in the diarrheal disease caused by Clostridium perfringens .

HISTOPATHOLOGY POST INTRAPERITONEAL INFECTION WITH Providencia rettgeri IN MICE

Zainab Ismail Ibrahim

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 10-21

The Providencia rettgeri (P.rettgeri) is an opportunistic pathogen of human and animals and has a clinical importance as a nosocomial pathogen causing infections in the urinary system after catheterization and in immunocompromised patients less than human feces, bile and sputum. To estimati the pathogenic role of P.rettgeri in mice post-infection intraperitonial infection (I/P). thirty mice from both sexes, aged 6-7 weeks and weight 25-30 gm. were infected I/P by a whole bacterial suspension of P.rettgeri 0.5 ml (containing 1x108 CFU/ml), the negative control group injected I/P with (0.5 ml) PBS,five mice were sacrificed after (24, 48hrs. and 4,7 and 14 days) post-inoculation, also (n=5) were considered as negative control group, for histopathological examination. The histopathological changes at 24,48hrs until 4 days; recorded mild to moderate acute inflammatory cells reaction, edema, fibrinous exudate. At 7&14 days there was also necrosis and focal aggregation of mononuclear cells. Strong pathogenic role of P.rettegri in induction acute inflammatory response in experimental lab mice.

INTRA EPITHELIAL CAPILLARIES OF IMMATURE AND MATURE OVIDUCT OF INDIGENOUS GEESE (Anser anser), HISTOMETRICAL STUDY

Mohammed S. Dawood

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 22-29

A total of twelve oviducts of indigenous geese were used in this study. In immature geese the four parts of oviduct were lined by simple cuboidal to low simple columnar epithelium.The mean height of cuboidal epithelium was 20±1µm, and 29±2µm for columnar epithelium and at this period the intra epithelial capillaries were not observe in all parts of oviduct. The mature and laying geese the epithelium lining has changed into ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium which its height has measured about58±3µm in isthmus and 60±1µm in magnum. The intraepithelial capillaries were appeared only in the isthmus and magnum regions and most of these capillaries in the isthmus have arranged between the basal cells at the basement membrane. The intra epithelial capillaries of magnum region were observed at the center of epithelium.

-DIAGNOSIS OF CARRIER STATE OF FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS IN VACCINATED AND UNVACCINATED CATTLE BY RT-PCR

Hazim T. Thwiny

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 30-38

The aim of present work were to investigate the carrier state to foot and mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle (vaccinated carriers) and unvaccinated cattle (unvaccinated carriers). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was employed to detect FMDV from esophageal and pharyngeal fluid samples collected from both vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle. Results have been shown that the persistence of FMDV is significantly higher in unvaccinated cattle in comparison to vaccinated animals. It have been concluded that high vaccination trials were play a role in the elimination of carrier status from cattle.

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LOSARTAN IN EXPERIMENTALLY-INDUCED RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN RAT MODEL

Wamedh Hashim Abbas; Manal A. Algaem

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 39-48

This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of losartan in 18 female rats which were divided into 3 groups. Respiratory disease were experimentally induced by the intraperitoneal injection and spray inhalation of ovalbumin (OVA) in first and second group while third group left as negative control group. First group were treated with losartan orally at dose rate of 5 mg/kg body weight, on the other hand second group considered as positive control group. ELISA test were used to estimate the concentration of TNF-α, IL-4 in BALF and total IgE in serum samples. Total WBC, neutrophil, eosinophil and lymphocyte were counted in bronchoaleveolar lavage (BAL). First and second rat groups show signs of pulmonary disease. Losartan treated group showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in concentration of TNF-α (152.483 pg/ml), IL-4 (39.733 pg/ml) in BALF and total serum IgE (56.006 pg/ml) in comparison with positive control group. A significant decrease (p<0.05) were also detected for total WBC (101.33 x103), neutrophil (8.83 x103), eosinophil (15.50 x103 ) and lymphocytes (15 x103 ) in BALF of losartan treated rat group in compare to positive control group.

PRE AND POSTNATAL VASCULARIZATION OF LONG BONES IN GUINEA PIG (CAVIACUTLERI)

O. Hamza; Luay

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 49-59

The present study was carried out to determine the vascularization of long bone in laboratory animal. Fourty healthy guinea pigs have been used and the result showed that, at 10 days old embryo showed newly differentiated blood cells at the future cartilaginous template. At age of 25-35 days only the osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes were seeing. At 43 old embryos the hematopoiesis and vascularization were clearly by formation free blood cells and newly formed blood vessels in the marrow cavity. At 54 old day embryo the hematopoiesis was increased and the differentiation of immature white blood cells was noticed at age of 65 day. At the postnatal periods showed a nutrient artery within marrow cavity.

NEW RECORDS OF THREE SPECIES OF HORSE FLIES (DIPTERA:TABANIDAE) IN IRAQ WITH REMARKS ON SOME ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS .

Alaa N.H. Ali; Dhia K. Karim

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 60-70

The research includes superficial taxonomic study of the horse fly family Tabanidae in the Province of Basrah / South of Iraq , according to the seven districts of the province , There are Al-Mdainah , Al-Qurnah , Shatt Alarab, Abu Al-Khasib, Al-Zubair , Al-Fao and Basrah center . The Results of the study were showed recording three species for the first time in Iraq back to the three genera , and were Haematopota subcylindrica , Atylotus agricola and Hybomitra peculiaris .

TOXICITY OF Copper AND Cobalt IN CHICKEN (GALLUS GALLUS DOMESTICS ASSESSMENT OF BODY WEIGHT AND METAL CONTENT IN TISSUES AFTER METAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

Salwa A. Abduljaleel

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 71-82

The toxic influence of dietary copper(Cu) and cobalt (Co) on the accumulation and body weight examined in broiler chicken. This experiment was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of dietary Cu and Co on chicks body weight and organ, content of the tissues of these two metals was also detected. One day age chicks of Gallus gallus domesticus fed diet supplemented with 500, 1000,1500ppm of Cu, second group exposure to 100,500, 1000ppm of Co in feed daily during 4 weeks. The control groups were fed without supplementation of metals. The concentrations of Cu and Co resulted in increased of Cu and Co content in liver, gizzard and muscle. Body weight of chicks was decreased by Cu and Co high concentration treatments. On the other hand, Liver weigh in chicks was significantly (P<0.05) decreased after Cu and Co treatments.

HEMATOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY CADMIUM CHLORIDE TOXICITY IN SHEEP, WITH USING ALPHA LIPOIC ACID AS ANTIOXIDANT.

Hussein Ali Naji; Mohammad Mushgil Zenad

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 83-96

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy toxic metal, with harmful effects on animals and public health. Recently the risk of cadmium toxicity is substantially regarded. Therefore the present study was performed to clarify the effects of acute cadmium toxicity in sheep with using alpha lipoic acid (ALA) as an antioxidant agent. Fifteen male lambs 5 - 7 months old were divided equally in to three groups, they were supplied with ordinary diet and provided with water ad-lib, The first group (I) was administered a single dose of CdCl2 3 mg/kg.bw subcutaneously (S/C), the second group(II) was injected with the same dose of CdCl2 and via by the same route, and then simultaneously administered an alpha lipoic acid 50 mg/kg.B.W intramuscularly, the later drug was repeated after 12 hours via the same route also. The third group (III) was left as control and given normal saline (S/C).
Resulted revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the Hb, MCHC and platelets were recorded, whereas significant elevation (P<0.05) of PCV value was observed, in addition non significant variations of RBCs count and MCV of the first group were noticed. The results also indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in WBC (neutrophilia) with significant (P<0.05) lymphocytopinia in the first group while Insignificant variations in hematological parameters in the second group as compared with the control group.

EXPLORE THE SYNERGISM OF SEDATIVE DOSE MEDETOMIDINE WITH TRAMADOL TO INDUCE ANALGESIC EFFECTS IN RABBITS

Mahmood. B. Mahmood

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 97-110

The study was designed to evaluate the analgesic effects of Medetomidine and Tramadol in rabbits, to detect the best dose (as onset and duration) for antinociceptive in this model, also evaluate the antinociceptive effect as sedative doses in these drugs as a mixture by using electrical stimulator. Administration of Medetomidine alone at 200 µgkg B.W. (I.M) and Tramadol alone at 2 mg kg B.W. (I.P) were the best doses for relief pain induced by electrical stimuli. There was increased in the voltage change for pain ( 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 minutes) in comparison with control and other doses for each drug. Administration of Medetomidine at 50 µg kg B.W. (I.M) with Tramadol at 0.5 mg kg B.W. I.P) significantly referred to synergism of the antinociceptive effect which induced analgesia in 100 % of the rabbits in comparison with other groups for each drug alone (at the same analgesic doses) without any overt side effects and without differences in glucose, glutathione, ALT and AST level in animals. The data of this study demonstrated the mixture of Medetomidine and Tramadol at low doses (subanalgesic doses) had a typical synergistic effect (super-additive) for inducing good and safe analgesia as well as its skeletal muscle relaxation in rabbits.

PHENOTYPIC STUDY ON THE CAPACITY OF BIOFILM PRODUCTION IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM BOVINE SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS AND THEIR IMPACT ON RESISTANCE TO ANTIMICROBIALS

Ali A. Al-Iedani

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 111-127

The study was intended for identification and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis cases. A total of 143 milk samples were collected from apparently normal cows from Basrah province. California mastitis test was used to detect 81 (56.6%) samples as subclinical mastitis. However, by using bacteriological and biochemical tests 36(44.44%) isolates were confirmed as S. aureus. Antimicrobials susceptibility assays of isolates revealed that, all of them were completely susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamycin and vancomycin. Oxacillin and cefoxitin susceptibility illustrated that 22(61.1%) isolates were resistant to methicillin (MRSA) and 14 (38.9%) isolates were methicillin susceptible (MSSA). Phenotypic production of slime and biofilm were evaluated by using Congo red agar and microtiter plate techniques, 31 (86.1%) isolates were slime producer and 29 (80.6%) were biofilm producers from all tested isolates. The production of slime and biofilm of MRSA isolates were 95.5% and 90.9%, whereas, for MSSA were 71.4% and 64.3% respectively. The differences in slime and biofilm production among MRSA and MSSA isolates were statistically significant.
All MRSA isolates were resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, cefoxitin, ampicillin and cefotaxime, and these isolates showed low resistance to erythromycin and lincomycin each (9.1%) and doxycycline (18.2%). However, these isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, gentamycin, nitrofurantoin and chloramphenicol. All MSSA isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin and 85.7% of isolates to cefotaxime, however, all isolates were sensitive to azithromycin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, oxacillin and vancomycin. The differences in antimicrobial susceptibility between MRSA and MSSA isolates were highly statistically significant.
Results of this study indicate that Staphylococcus aureus is the most important agent of bovine subclinical mastitis, isolates which have resistance to methicillin and produce biofilm have propensity to be multiple antibiotic resistant

HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF ADRENAL GLAND IN LOCAL ADULT FEMALE DUCK (ANASPLATYHYNCHOS)

Jafar G. A. Al-Jebori; Ahmed O.Hossain; Zina Sh. M. Al-tamimi; Ali K.H. Al-Jebori

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 164-175

The study was designed to describe the morphological and histological characteristics of the adrenal gland in female Duck (Anasplatyrhynchos).Ten adrenal glands was used in the study collected from five adult female ducks.The morphological features of glands were described and histological sections were prepared from each sample. The study revealed that theducks have paired glands located in the abdominal cavity at the anterior end of the kidneys.The shape of right gland is semi-circular while, the left elongated or triangular in shape. The mean weight of right gland of duck about (0.39) gram while, the left was (0.41)gram. The mean values of long axis of left adrenal gland about (15.46) mm and the diameter of right gave mean values about (11.30) mm. The histological sections of the adrenal gland revealed in a division of gland into a subcapsular layer (SZ)-(peripheral zone) and central zone (CZ) or inner zone. The subscapular zone (SZ) consisted of groups of cells immediately below the capsule which forms irregularly arranged cords while, there are two types of cells in central zone of gland, the first type of cells, acidophilic cells and the second type of cells, basophilic cells called chromaffin cells.

PATHOGENETIC EFFECTS OF MERCURY CHLORIDE IN WHITE RATS

Atiaf Ghanim Rhyaf

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 176-191

The study was performed on twelve white rats of approximately of the same body weight ( 200-220 gms) divided equally in to 3 groups ; The first group(T1) was received mercury chloride ( 1mg/kg B.W intraperitoneally once daily for 30 days).
While the second group (T2) was received mercury chloride (1.5mg/kg B.W intraperitoneally once daily for 30 days).Third group was received only0.2ml of Distilled water as control group.
At the end of experiment, the animals were sacrificed and small pieces of livers had been collected for genetic experiment. Also small specimens (2cm³) were taken from livers and kidneys to histopathology. The genetic experiment was showed that the T1 group demonstrated non-significant increase in p53 mRNA gene expression levels as compared with the control group, while the group T2 showed significant increase (p<0.05) in p53 mRNA gene expression level as compared with the control group. The microscopic examination of histopathological sections of livers and kidneys of (T2) group was showed severe pathological changes characterized by vaculation and necrosis of hepatocyte and marked atrophy of glomeruli, degenerative changes of epithelial layer of renal tubules with cast formation, hemorrhage and congestion. While (T1) group was showed less pathological changes in livers characterized by loss of radially arrangement of hepatocyte and dilatation of sinusoids. In kidneys there was atrophy of glomeruli, hemorrhage and congestion.

CHRONIC BABESIOSIS OF DROUGHT HORSES IN BASRAH PROVINCE, BASRAH- IRAQ

Hassanin.H.N.AL-Autaish Rahman K. Muhsen; Kamal M .Alsaad; Mohammed A.Y.AL-Ammery

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 128-137

The aim of the present work was to study chronic Babesiosis in drought horses in Basrah ,Iraq. Sixteen drought local breed horses more than (5) years old of both sexes were used in this study, show signs of generalized debility and icteric mucous membranes .The study were carried out in Basrah ,Iraq .Five clinically healthy local breed horses were considered as controls .Results revealed that diseased drought horses show signs of complete anorexia , severe emaciation and evident loss of body weight with poor tolerance , icteric mucous membranes of eyes, bulging of supra orbital fossa , edema were detected around fetlock joint, dehydration ,hemoglobinuria with intermittent episodes of colicky signs, Moreover , on clinical examination, diseased horses show shallow rapid respiration and accelerated strong heart beats with normal body temperature ,Moreover diseased horses suffering from constipation or diarrhea with presence or absence of cecal borborygmi sounds. Statistically significant increase were encountered in, respiratory , heart rates, and capillary refilling time, Furthermore Babesia caballi were detected microscopically on blood smears Giemsa stained, as large paired or crescent-shaped parasites ,Moreover it were also seen as , single and double pyriform with obtuse or acute angle in side the erythrocytes, In addition hematological examination of diseased horses with Babesiosis caballi revealed anemia represented by significant decrease in total erythrocytes count ,hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume which were reflected macrocytic normochromic type due to significant increase in mean corpuscular volume ,Furthermore no significant difference were encountered in total and differential leukocytes count between diseased animals and controls ,in addition results were indicated no significant difference in clotting factors indices .It haven been concluded that chronic Babesiosis infected horses results in obvious hemolytic anemia and sever debility of diseased drought horses

STUDY OF ANAESTHETIC, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF KETAMINE COMBINATION WITH FENTANYL AND DIAZEPAM IN RABBITS

Bahaa H. Mohammed; Hassan T. Mohamed Al-Khuzai

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 138-152

The study was conducted at the animal house of the collage of Veterinary medicine university of Basrah, the objective of this study to know effect ketamine drug as anesthetic agent in rabbits and comparison between several types of general anesthetic systems in rabbits and study the combination with Diazepam and fentanyl , in this study used (32) adult domestic rabbits from both gender , the average of body weight (1000-1900) grams , the rout of administration by intramuscular , were divided equally and randomly into four groups (8) rabbit in each groups .We were studied the induction time, surgical anesthesia time and recovery time also we were studied some physiological parameter (heart rate, respiratory rate and body temperature), also we were recorded (Degree of Analgesia, Eyes Reflexes and Degree of Muscle Relaxation).We were recorded data of this parameter before I.M administration at (Zero) minute and after I.M administration depending the following time (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60) minute, until response the rabbit to external stimuli.The biochemical test are (ASTand ALT).

ISOLATION OF STAPHYLOCOCUS AUREUS AND COAGULASE NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCIFORM BOVINE SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF MILK

Ali A. Al-Iedani

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 153-163

This study was conducted to isolate Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) from bovine subclinical mastitis cases and study their effect on chemical composition of milk. A total of 152 milk samples were collected from apparently normal cows from Basrah province, subclinical mastitis (SCM) was detected in 51.97% of tested samples by using California mastitis test (CMT). Staphylococcus aureus and CNS were isolated from 20.25% and 16.45% cases of tested SCM respectively.
The affected samples with SCM have high concentrations of fat and protein, the difference from normal samples was statistically highly significant (P ˂0.001) for fat; lactose was lower in affected samples. The pH of affected samples was higher than that of normal, however, pH of samples containing S. aureus was the highest (7.8375) and the difference was statistically significant (P˂ 0.05).
Antimicrobial susceptibility assay revealed that all isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin and vancomycin. However, the resistance to oxacillin and penicillin exhibited by CNS and S. aureus were 76.9%, 84.6%, 62.5% and 68.75% respectively.
It have been concluded that, subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococci(in particular S. aureus) which carried resistance to antibioticsused in human medicine represents a big problem.However, the changes caused by S. aureus and other staphylococci in pH and chemical composition of mastitic milk may reduce the shelf life and processing of the products.

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS EXTRACTS AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM ISOLATED FROM DOMESTIC CHICKEN IN AL-QADISSIYA PROVINCE

Huda Abdal-hadei Ali Al-Nasrawi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 192-210

The aim of present study was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory activity of ethanolic and chloroformic extracts of some medicinal plants{ pomegranate peel (Punicagranatum) , oak trunks (Quercusacuta),thyme fruit(Thymus vulgaris )andCinnamon tree cortex (Cinnamomumzeylanicum)}at different concentrations (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml) against Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from fecal samples of domestic chickens (suffering from signs of enteritis infection) and compared their activity with effectiveness of standard reference antibiotics used in this study and by measuring the zones of inhibition produced around the holes after incubation on Muller-Hinton agar.
The results exhibited variable susceptibility of tested microorganisms for different concentration of extracts. In present study, the activity of most these medicinal plants extracts was associated with high concentrations. The results showed ethanolic and chloroformic extracts of thyme and Cinnamon as well as,ethanolic extracts of pomegranate peel, oak exhibited significant effectiveness against E.coli isolates while, same isolates werethe more resistant bacteria for chloroformic extracts of pomegranate peel and oak.
The ethanolic and chloroformic extracts of oak andCinnamon showed good antibacterial activity against salmonella Typhimuriumisolates, except ethanolic extract of oak at concentration 50 mg/mldid not show any antibacterial activity againstSalmonella Typhimurium isolates.Ethanolic and chloroformic extracts of thyme as well as, ethanolic extracts of pomegranate peel showed moderate antibacterial activity against Salmonella Typhimuriumisolates while;chloroformic extracts of pomegranate peel did not show any antibacterial activity against same isolates. In this study, the standard antibiotics (nalidixic acid, lincomycin, rifampin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and novobiocin) showed low effective in inhibition the growth of E.coli andSalmonella typhimurium isolates while,cephalothin showed no effect in inhibition against the growth of the tested organisms.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND HORMONAL EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF ASPIRIN ON THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF ALBINO RATS

Khalil G. Chelab; Zainab I. Mohammed; SH. Ali

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 211-226

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of aspirin on the female reproductive organs in albino rats. (21) mature female albino rats (150-170gm) were divided into three groups: 1st group which treated as negative control group, it was drenched only 0.2 ml of PBS.2nd group was drenched with Aspirin(10 mg/Kg of B.W once daily for 14 days).3rd group was drenched with Aspirin (20 mg/Kg B.W once daily for 14 days). Our results showed that 2nd group and 3rd group demonstrated significantly decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in the values of plasma LH compared with control group. In values of plasma FSH hormone, the 2nd and 3rd groups showed significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) in the relation with the control group. On the other hand, the microscopic examination of the histopathological sections of uteri of all the treated and control groups showed that the 2nd group demonstrated mild hyperplasia and degeneration in the epithelial cells which lining the uterus and there is few numbers of uteri glands. Also marked hyperplasia and vacuolation of the epithelial cells which lines the uterus. In 3rd group, the histopathological examination of uteri elucidates profuse proliferation and irregular hyperplasia of smooth muscles in the wall of uterus, there is high infiltration of inflammatory cells and there is congestion of blood vessels. Also there is marked vacuolation of uterine epithelial cells and fewer and smaller uterine glands than the 2nd group and 1st (control) group. In ovaries of 2nd group showed markedly few follicular growth wave characterized by primary, secondary follicles and there is congestion and thrombi in the ovarian stroma. Also presence of large corpus luteum. But the histopathological changes in the ovaries of 3rd group animals showed more severity than 2nd group animals in which there are primary and secondary follicles with severe congestion and hemorrhage, also there is high numbers of corpus luteum. 1st (control) group was showed normal histological feature of uteri and ovaries. We conclude from the present study that different doses of aspirin can cause histopathological effects and hormonal disturbances in FSH and LH hormones.

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF Aloe vera EXTRACT ON CASES OF KERATOCONJUNCTIVITISIN SHEEP (IN VIVO AND INVITRO STUDY)AND COMPARED WITH PENICILLIN –STREPTOMYCIN.

H.H.Al-Ahbabi; M. H. Al-Ahbab; Marwa amer; S. O. Hasson; W.F.abed; A. M.Jassim

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 227-245

The study was conducted at the of animal fields in AL-Qassim city, sheep in this fields was suffering from severe eye infection during the period April to October ,2015 .sheep was clinically examined and showed signs copious eye drops, increase body temperatures, swollen of eye with redness, eye pus in some cases, the sheep was checked clinically and eye swabs of 20 keratoconjuctivitis affected sheep carried out on the basis of their culturing,morphology, staining,biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by (disc diffusion method and well diffusion method) from present study .percent of infection was S.aureus(50%), M.ovis (33%)and Proteus spp.(17%) was isolated . Result of antimicrobial properties of Aloe Verawas evaluated in various in-vitro experiments against these species of bacteria S.aureus,M.ovis and Proteus spp. and showed good inhibition activity.In vivo study recovery from the conjunctivitis was record after 6 -10 days for animal treated with Pencillin-Streptomycine while group of extract that showed complete healing during period 6-10 day according totype and severity of infection, also there is no recurrent infection after treated with aloe Vera ointment and eye lotion , as well as Gide to done many of research on aloeVera for used in eye problem which consider very important in Veterinary Medicine .

THE NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BAY LEAVES (Laurusnobilis L.)

Alaa G. AL-Hashimi; Sawsan A. Mahmood

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 246-259

The present study is to identify the chemical composition of bay leaves (Laurusnobilis L.) protein, oil, ash and carbohydrate which were (7.62, 8.5, 3.63, 50.83)% respectively.This paper reports the concentration of many minerals calcium, phosphorus, potassium, iron, copper magnesium, manganese, and zink. calcium and magnesium have the highest concentration(377,550 mg /g) respectively, vitamins concentration also determined riboflavin, ascorbic acid which were (45.33, 2, 0.90 mg/g) respectively. Bay oil.Was extracted from bay leaves(L.nobilis)with petroleum ether using Soxhlet apparatus. Bay oil showed high value in unsaturated fatty acids 55% include oleic,linoleic,linolenic, and saturated fatty acids 45% include laureic, merestic, palmetic, stearic. The present study describe the reducing power and antioxidant activity for alcoholic extracts of bay leaves.rates of antioxidant activity and reducing power increases as the concentrate of bay leaves extract increasedwhich were (173.81%) and (75.61%) respectively at 5% concentration.

HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOMORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF RETINA IN PIGEON AND DUCK

Mohammed A. Ali

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 260-266

ABSTRACT
The eye ball ( globe) comprises Three concentric layers. ( The fibrous tunic, The vascular tunic, and the nervous tunic. And the nervous tunic the deepest layer of the eye ball is the internal (nervous ) tunic or retina. The study aimed to determine the histological structure of retina.
The histological and histomorphometric Study Showed The retina as representing internal Tunica ( Nervous). And show That retina in pigeon and duck haves many layers ( ten layers); One of these is the photoreceptor Layer , In which are found the specialized neural receptor cells of the visual system, The rods and cones are more dominant while the rods are most in photoreceptors layer also the measurement of retina is smallest than in the center ( middle) and the measuring of rods and cones layers in pigeon, smallest than in duck.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF OVINE INTESTINAL ADENOMAS IN BASRAH ABATTOIR

Jihad Abdulameer Ahmed

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 267-276

In order to investigate the histopathological features of ovine intestinal adenomas, the study achieved in 27 macroscopically suspected intestinal adenomas of sheep aged between 2-3 years, which diagnosed in Basrah abattoir, the intestines of slaughtered sheep were fixed and processed for light microscopy.
The histopathological results showed multiple stages of neoplastic differentiation, mainly circumscribed areas suggesting adenomatous form by proliferating mucous glands in sub mucosal region of colon of varying sizes, some of which with clear proliferating hypertrophic and hyperplastic epithelial lining with area of angiogenesis and hemorrhage around them. Morever, the results showed circumscribed areas of adenomatous glandular structures enclosed by superficial mucosal epithelium and in sub mucosal region of rectum. It had been concluded that the ovine intestinal adenomas showed a degree of differentiation in mid aged sheep (2-3 years old aged) that may resembles other adenomatous intestinal lesions reported in more older age of others domestic animals.

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND HEMATOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ANAPLASMA SPP. IN SHEEP IN MIDDLE PARTS OF IRAQ.

Ali Hamid Mohammed; Kefah Ouda Salman

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 277-293

The present study was designed to identify Anaplasma spp. in sheep in middle of Iraq, since 632 local sheep breeds were randomly selected from (Baghdad, Babylon, Wasit, Najaf and Karbala) to examine. Results indicated that different Anaplasma spp. were identified: Anaplasma marginale 75 (11.86%) positive cases, Anaplasma centrale 45 (7.12%) positive cases and Anaplasma ovis 19 (3.01%) positive cases; as well as there were many cases of mixed infection distributed as A. marginale and A. centrale 15 (2.37%) cases, A. marginale and A. ovis 9 (1.42%), A. centrale and A. ovis 4 (0.63%) cases and there were 4 (0.63%) cases carried mixed infection with A. marginale , A. centrale and A. ovis. Results were also showed that infected animals show different clinical manifestation such as fever, change in pulse and respiratory rate, loss of appetite, emaciation, change in hematological parameters, further more anemia were of types macrocytic hypochromic which more predominant type followed by microcytic hypochromic and normocytic hypochromic respectively.

DETECTION THE PREVALENCE OF SOME GASTRO -INTESTINAL PROTOZOA IN BUFFALOES OF BABYLON GOVERNORATE.

Abdul Ameer J. Zayer; Haider M. A.AL-Rubaie; Amanee M. Radhy; Hamzah Hadi Obayes

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 294-303

The study carried out in order to investigation the prevalence of gastro -intestinal protozoa in feces of buffaloes in Babylon governorate (Iraq) during the period between November 2014 to May 2015.Atotal of 200 fecal samples of buffaloes ( 50calves , 60 males and 90 females) ,the highest prevalence rate with Eimeria spp. was in calves (36%) ,males (8.3%) females (10%) followed by closed rate with Cryptosporidium spp. which was recorded (16%) in calves , (13.3%) in males, and (4.4%) in females ,the prevalence rate was reported with Giaridia duodenalis in calves (20%) and (11.6% ,8.8%) in males and females respectivly. According to the age and sex , calves and males were showed highly infection rates with protozoa.

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Staphylococcus aureus FROM BUFFALOES MILK INFECTED WITH SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS AND MILK WORKERS

Douaa A. Khaleel; Rasha M. Othman; Bassam Y. Khudaier

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 304-312

Atotal of 100/270 (37%) fermented Mannitol salt agar (MSA) isolates were obtained: 40/180 (22.2%) were from buffaloes milk with subclinical mastitis and 60/90 (66.7%) were from hands of milk workers. All suspected Staphylococcus aureus isolates which tested microscopically and biochemically were 15/100 (15%) of suspected isolates, 5/40 (12.5) from milk and 10/60 (16.7) from hands swabs of milk workers were diagnosed as S. aureus.

GROSS AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF GRANULOMAS OF UNKNOWN ETIOLOGY IN SHEEP AND GOATS IN DUHOK ABATTOIR

Bayar N. Saeed; Mahdi Ali Abdullah

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 313-320

Granulomas are masses of tissue reaction resulted as well from of infection, inflammation or presence of foreign bodies. The present study was conducted to investigate the gross and histopathological features of granulomas of unknown etiology.Twenty seven cases of granulomas were collected from the lung of sheep and goats. The gross lesions of granulomas were small to large nodules, white to gray in color, and hard in palpation. Histopathologically, all granulomas were undergone caseous necrosis which surrounded by inflammatory zone and most importantly presence of multinucleated giant cells. This study differentiates the granulomas from other lung lesions based on gross and histopathological finding.

ULTRASONOGRAPHIY OF THE EYE IN SHEEP

Sameer Ahmed Abid Al-Redah; Eman E. D. Al-Hacham; Hassaneen Ali Al-Sharoot

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 321-328

The intent of this study were to explain the normal anatomy of Iraqi sheep eye by using the ultrasonography. Ocular ultrasonographic inspection were achieved on 15 young sheep (8-12 months) from local breed. ultrasonographic images were obtained with a 7.5 MHz linear probe in the sagittal plane. The results of this study showed that the Axial Globe Length (AGL) was (20.05 mm), Anterior Chamber Depth (ACD) was (1.85 mm), Vitreous Chamber Depth (VCD) was (9.82 mm), Scleroretinal Rim Thickness (SRT) was (1.07 mm), Lens Thickness (LT) was (8.95 mm) and Corneal Thickness (CT) was (1.14 mm) respectively. The values of the dimensions of the normal eye components which obtained from this study by using ultrasonography give excellent guide to practitioners in the evaluation of ocular diseases in sheep.

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ALOCALSTRAIN OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIAL ACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM AND STUDIED THE TOLERANCE ABILITY FOR DIFFERENT LEVELS OF pH

Sinan J. Abdul-Abbas; Adnan E. Al-Badran; Hasan R. Al-Sherifi; Aswan H. Aboud Al-bayyar

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 329-345

Lactobacillus plantarum IRQ12 was isolated from local pickle producing from Cucumis sativus submerged in 5% salt solution for one week far from sun light, selective media was used for isolation and activation process which was MRS broth and MRS agar, biochemical tests like catalase, nitrate reducing, productive gas, citrate consumption, produced ammonia from arginine, produced indole from tryptophan, fluid gelatin, ability of growth in 15, 45 °C, carbohydrates fermentation test, were carried out. DNA of bacteria was extracted by DNA extraction kit, identification by 16S rDNA gene. the local strain tolerance ability was investigated for different levels of pH 4, 3, 2 and 1.5 for 0, 1, 2 and 3 hours, log cfu/ml at pH 4 after 3 hours of treatment was 7.83 and at pH 3 the log cfu/ml decrease to 6.8 after 3 hours of treatment. The log cfu/ml was decreased to 5.76 and 5.05 at pH 2 and 1.5 respectively after 3 hours of treatment.

SEROCLINICAL DIAGNOSIS OF Anaplasma marginale BACTERIA IN CARRIER ARABIAN ONE - HUMPED CAMELS

Hasanain AJ. Al-Gharban; Hala SR. AL-Taee

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 346-359

Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of ruminants and wild animals that caused by an intra erythrocytic bacterium, Anaplasma marginale. Under natural conditions, camels become infected in areas where the disease is endemic. Camels that survive from acute infection become carriers because of the capability of these bacteria to deception the immune system using antigenic variations. Although, several serological methods were concerned for Anaplasma marginale IgG antibodies detection, but the competitive indirect ELISA test was more sensitivity and specificity. The present study was conducted at Al-Najaf and Wasit provinces on 120 camels, selected randomly from both sexes and divided into two aged groups. The total sero positivity prevalence was (10.83%); and depending on provincial basis was (8.57%) in Al-Najaf and (14%) in Wasit provinces. Clinically, the sero positive prevalence two age groups (<5 and >5 years old) had (6.67%) and (15%), respectively. No significant differences (P<0.005) were encountered in sero positive camels in related to sex and vital signs (temperature, respiratory and heart rates), emaciation and paleness of the mucous membrane, while the rough hair coat and presence of ticks encountered a significant difference (P< 0.05).

SEROCLINICAL DIAGNOSIS OF Anaplasma marginale BACTERIA IN CARRIER ARABIAN ONE - HUMPED CAMELS

Hasanain AJ. Al-Gharban; Hala SR. AL-Taee

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 346-359

Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of ruminants and wild animals that caused by an intra erythrocytic bacterium, Anaplasma marginale. Under natural conditions, camels become infected in areas where the disease is endemic. Camels that survive from acute infection become carriers because of the capability of these bacteria to deception the immune system using antigenic variations. Although, several serological methods were concerned for Anaplasma marginale IgG antibodies detection, but the competitive indirect ELISA test was more sensitivity and specificity. The present study was conducted at Al-Najaf and Wasit provinces on 120 camels, selected randomly from both sexes and divided into two aged groups. The total sero positivity prevalence was (10.83%); and depending on provincial basis was (8.57%) in Al-Najaf and (14%) in Wasit provinces. Clinically, the sero positive prevalence two age groups (<5 and >5 years old) had (6.67%) and (15%), respectively. No significant differences (P<0.005) were encountered in sero positive camels in related to sex and vital signs (temperature, respiratory and heart rates), emaciation and paleness of the mucous membrane, while the rough hair coat and presence of ticks encountered a significant difference (P< 0.05).

ISOLATON AND IDENTIFICATION SOME BACTERIAL CAUSES OF LUNG ABSCESSESSHEEP BY CHROMOGENIC MEDIA

Nabeel Ahmed Al -Anbagi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 360-370

The study carried to isolation and identification some bacterial causes of lung abscesses in the sheep in Najaf province by Orientation chromagar. Forty two lung abscess were collected fromdied (10) and slaughtered sheep(32). The result of bacterial isolation appeared 32 bacterial isolates included 18 (56.2%) Gram positive bacteria and 14(43.7%) Gram negative bacteria according morphology and color of colony and confirmed by classical biochemical test .The Staphylococcus aureus were predominant bacteria 15(46.8%) , Escherichia coli 9 (28.1 %), Klebsiella pneumonia 5 (15.6 %) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus 3 (9.3%).

GCMS A CHEMICALS MODERN METHOD TO CLASSIFICATION OF Chrysomya bezziana(OWS) IN IRAQ.

Nasir Almansour; Mufeed A .Habeeb; Mushtag Alhelfi

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 371-379

New study for classification Chrysomya bezziana (OWS); order diptera by using GcMS (gas chromatography) as development method used first time in Iraq for taxonomy and separation of fly body compound at same little time, with paragraph show pick of quantity for each element in the quticul of adult fly. Cold method used for separation compound by add 20ml f Hexsan to 20ml of a methanol in 50ml tube and shack carefully. Good Result been in this new method as it is first record of separation and classification chemically method with diagraph for All compounds of Cuticles’% for each one with its chemicals traction at little time low than one hour and low price and low effort to Classified A species of ( OWS) Chrysomya bezziana

STUDY OF SOME BLOOD NORMAL PARAMETERS OF SHEEP IN BASRAH

Hassanin Husham Naser Al-Autaish

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research., Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 380-385

This study was conducted in Basrah at period from September- 2012 throughout
August- 2013.Blood samples were collected from 480 sheep in different ages and
both genders. Haematological parameters were estimated and the result revealed that;
the sheep included in this study have lower haematological parameters than the
standard ones. Young animals in this study suffering from macrocytic normochromic
anaemia